Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

The Great Wave off Kanagawa, the best known print in the series.
(Reprint by Adachi from the Shōwa period (1926–1989)

Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Japanese: 富嶽三十六景, Hepburn: Fugaku Sanjūrokkei) is a series of landscape prints by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai (1760–1849). The series depicts Mount Fuji from different locations and in various seasons and weather conditions. The immediate success of the publication led to another ten prints being added to the series.

The series was produced from c. 1830 to 1832, when Hokusai was in his seventies and at the height of his career, and published by Nishimura Yohachi.[1][2] Among the prints are three of Hokusai's most famous: The Great Wave off Kanagawa, Fine Wind, Clear Morning, and Thunderstorm Beneath the Summit.[1] The lesser-known Kajikazawa in Kai Province is also considered one of the series' best works.[3] The Thirty-six Views has been described as the artist's "indisputable colour-print masterpiece".[2]

History

Mount Fuji is a popular subject for Japanese art due to its cultural and religious significance. This belief can be traced to The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, where a goddess deposits the elixir of life on the peak. As the historian Henry Smith[4] explains, "Thus from an early time, Mt. Fuji was seen as the source of the secret of immortality, a tradition that was at the heart of Hokusai's own obsession with the mountain."[5]

Each image was made through a process whereby Hokusai's drawing on paper was glued to a woodblock to guide the carving. The original design is therefore lost in the process. The block was then covered with ink and applied to paper to create the image (see Woodblock printing in Japan for further details). The complexity of Hokusai's images includes the wide range of colors he used, which required the use of a separate block for each color appearing in the image.

The earliest prints in the series were made with largely blue tones (aizuri-e), including the key blocks which provide an image's outlines.[2] Prussian blue pigment had not long been introduced to Japan from Europe and Hokusai used it extensively, ensuring its popularity. Once the publisher, Nishimura, was sure of the series' success, prints were made with multiple colours (nishiki-e). Nishimura had planned to expand the series to more than a hundred prints, but publication stopped at forty-six.[6]

The most famous single image from the series is widely known in English as The Great Wave off Kanagawa. It is Hokusai's most celebrated work and is often considered the most recognizable work of Japanese art in the world. Another iconic work from Thirty-six Views is Fine Wind, Clear Morning, also known as Red Fuji, which has been described as "one of the simplest and at the same time one of the most outstanding of all Japanese prints".[7]

Influence

While Hokusai's Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji is the most famous ukiyo-e series to focus on Mount Fuji, there are several other works with the same subject, including Hiroshige's later series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji and Hokusai's subsequent book One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji.[5]

In his 1896 book on Hokusai, French art critic Edmond de Goncourt wrote that despite its "rather crude colors", it was, "the album which inspires the landscapes of the impressionists of the present moment."[2] The French artist Henri Rivière (1864–1951) published the set of color lithographs "Thirty-six views of the Tour Eiffel" in 1902, inspired by the seminal print set of Hokusai, one of the many influences of Japanese art on late 19th century and early 20th century French art (Japonism, known as "Japonisme" in French)

Prints

Original thirty-six

No. Image English title Japanese title
1 Great Wave Hokusai BM 1906.1220.0.533 n01.jpg The Great Wave off Kanagawa 神奈川沖浪裏

Kanagawa oki nami-ura

2 Fine Wind, Clear Morning by Hokusai (Shimane Art Museum).jpg Fine Wind, Clear Morning, also known as South Wind, Clear Sky or Red Fuji 凱風快晴

Gaifū kaisei

3 Katsushika Hokusai, tempesta sotto la vetta, dalla serie delle 36 vedute del monte fuji, 1831 ca.jpg Thunderstorm Beneath the Summit 山下白雨

Sanka hakuu

4 冨嶽三十六景 深川万年橋下-Under the Mannen Bridge at Fukagawa (Fukagawa Mannenbashi shita), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141017.jpg Under Mannen Bridge at Fukagawa 深川万年橋下

Fukagawa Mannen-bashi shita

5 冨嶽三十六景 東都駿台-Surugadai in Edo (Tōto Sundai), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140999.jpg Sundai, Edo 東都駿台

Tōto sundai

6 The coast of seven leages in Kamakura.jpg Cushion Pine at Aoyama 青山円座松

Aoyama enza-no-matsu

7 冨嶽三十六景 武州千住-Senju in Musashi Province (Bushū Senju), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141087.jpg Senju, Musashi But 武州千住

Bushū Senju

8 冨嶽三十六景 甲州犬目峠-The Inume Pass in Kai Province (Kōshū Inume tōge), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141045.jpg Inume Pass, Kōshū 甲州犬目峠

Kōshū inume-tōge

9 冨嶽三十六景 尾州不二見原-Fujimigahara in Owari Province (Bishū Fujimigahara), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141033.jpg Fuji View Field in Owari Province 尾州不二見原

Bishū Fujimigahara

10 冨嶽三十六景 駿州江尻-Ejiri in Suruga Province (Sunshū Ejiri), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140977.jpg Ejiri in Suruga Province 駿州江尻

Sunshū Ejiri

11 A sketch of the Mitsui shop in Suruga street in Edo.jpg A sketch of the Mitsui shop in Suruga in Edo (present-day Muromachi, Tokyo) 江都駿河町三井見世略図

Kōto Suruga-cho Mitsui Miseryakuzu

12 Katsushika Hokusai, tramonto presso il ponte ryogokubashi dall'imbarcadero ommayagashi, dalla serie delle 36 vedute del monte fuji, 1831 ca.jpg Sunset across the Ryōgoku bridge from the bank of the Sumida River at Onmayagashi 御厩川岸より両国橋夕陽見

Ommayagashi yori ryōgoku-bashi yūhi mi

13 冨嶽三十六景 五百らかん寺さざゐどう-Sazai Hall at the Temple of the Five Hundred Arhats (Gohyaku Rakanji Sazaidō), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141020.jpg Sazai hall – Temple of Five Hundred Rakan 五百らかん寺さざゐどう

Gohyaku-rakanji Sazaidō

14 Besneeuwde ochtend in Koishikawa-Rijksmuseum AK-MAK-1588.jpeg Tea house at Koishikawa. The morning after a snowfall 礫川雪の旦

Koishikawa yuki no ashita

15 冨嶽三十六景 下目黒-Lower Meguro (Shimo Meguro), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140998.jpg Shimomeguro 下目黒

Shimomeguro

16 冨嶽三十六景 隠田の水車-The Waterwheel at Onden (Onden no suisha), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141021.jpg Watermill at Onden 隠田の水車

Onden no suisha

17 Enoshima in the Sagami province.jpg Enoshima in Sagami Province 相州江の島

Soshū Enoshima

18 冨嶽三十六景 東海道江尻田子の浦略図-Tago Bay near Ejiri on the Tōkaidō (Tōkaidō Ejiri Tago no ura ryaku zu), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141037.jpg Shore of Tago Bay, Ejiri at Tōkaidō 東海道江尻田子の浦略図

Tōkaidō Ejiri tago-no-uraryakuzu

19 冨嶽三十六景 東海道吉田-Yoshida on the Tōkaidō (Tōkaidō Yoshida), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141007.jpg Yoshida at Tōkaidō 東海道吉田

Tōkaidō Yoshida

20 冨嶽三十六景 上総の海路-At Sea off Kazusa (Kazusa no kairo), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141056.jpg The Kazusa Province sea route 上総の海路

Kazusa no kairo

21 冨嶽三十六景 江戸日本橋-Nihonbashi in Edo (Edo Nihonbashi), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141003.jpg Nihonbashi bridge in Edo 江戸日本橋

Edo Nihon-bashi

22 冨嶽三十六景 隅田川関屋の里-Sekiya Village on the Sumida River (Sumidagawa Sekiya no sato), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141023.jpg Barrier Town on the Sumida River 隅田川関屋の里

Sumidagawa Sekiya no sato

23 冨嶽三十六景 登戸浦-Noboto Bay (Noboto no ura), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141022.jpg Bay of Noboto 登戸浦

Noboto-ura

24 The lake of Hakone in the Segami province.jpg The lake of Hakone in Sagami Province 相州箱根湖水

Sōshū Hakone kosui

25 冨嶽三十六景 甲州三坂水面-Reflection in Lake at Misaka in Kai Province (Kōshū Misaka suimen), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei MET DP141064.jpg Mount Fuji reflects in Lake Kawaguchi, seen from the Misaka Pass in Kai Province 甲州三坂水面

Kōshū Misaka suimen

26 冨嶽三十六景 東海道保土ケ谷-Hodogaya on the Tōkaidō (Tōkaidō Hodogaya), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141025.jpg Hodogaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道程ケ谷

Tōkaidō Hodogaya

27 冨嶽三十六景 武州玉川-Fuji—The Tama River, Musashi Province, from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140975.jpg Tama River in Musashi Province 武州玉川

Bushū Tamagawa

28 Asakusa Honganji temple in th Eastern capital.jpg Asakusa Hongan-ji temple in the Eastern capital [Edo] 東都浅草本願寺

Tōto Asakusa honganji

29 冨嶽三十六景 武陽佃島-Tsukudajima in Musashi Province (Buyō Tsukudajima), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141089.jpg Tsukuda Island in Musashi Province 武陽佃島

Buyō Tsukuda-jima

30 冨嶽三十六景 相州七里浜-Shichirigahama in Sagami Province (Sōshū Shichirigahama), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140979.jpg Shichiri beach in Sagami Province 相州七里浜

Soshū Shichiri-ga-hama

31 Umegawa in Sagami province.jpg Umezawa in Sagami Province 相州梅沢庄

Soshū umezawanoshō

32 Kajikazawa in Kai Province (Koshu Kajikazawa).jpg Kajikazawa in Kai Province 甲州石班沢

Kōshū Kajikazawa

33 冨嶽三十六景 甲州三島越-Mishima Pass in Kai Province (Kōshū Mishima goe), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141043.jpg Mishima Pass in Kai Province 甲州三嶌越

Kōshū Mishima-goe

34 冨嶽三十六景 遠江山中-In the Mountains of Tōtomi Province (Tōtomi sanchū), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP140988.jpg Mount Fuji from the mountains of Tōtōmi 遠江山中

Tōtōumi sanchū

35 Het Suwa meer in de provincie Shinano Shinshu Suwako (titel op object) 36 gezichten op de berg Fuji (serietitel) Fugaku sanjurokkei (serietitel op object), RP-P-1956-730.jpg A View of Mount Fuji Across Lake Suwa (Lake Suwa in Shinano Province) 信州諏訪湖

Shinshū Suwa-ko

36 冨嶽三十六景 常州牛掘-Ushibori in Hitachi Province (Jōshū Ushibori), from the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Fugaku sanjūrokkei) MET DP141044.jpg Ushibori in Hitachi Province 常州牛掘

Jōshū Ushibori

Additional 10

No. Image English title Japanese title
1 Katsushika Hokusai, Goten-yama hill, Shinagawa on the Tōkaidō, ca. 1832.jpg Goten-yama-hill, Shinagawa on the Tōkaidō 東海道品川御殿山の不二

Tōkaidō Shinagawa Goten'yama no Fuji

2 Honjo Tatekawa, the timberyard at Honjo.jpg Honjo Tatekawa, the timberyard at Honjo, Sumida 本所立川

Honjo Tatekawa

3 Nakahara in the Sagami province.jpg Pleasure District at Senju 従千住花街眺望の不二

Senju Hana-machi Yori Chōbō no Fuji

4 Soshu Nakahara.jpg Nakahara in Sagami Province 相州仲原

Sōshū Nakahara

5 Ono Shindon in the Suraga province.jpg Ōno Shinden in Suruga Province 駿州大野新田

Sunshū Ōno-shinden

6 Climbing on Mt. Fuji.jpg Climbing on Fuji 諸人登山

Shojin tozan

7 The Tea plantation of Katakura in the Suruga province.jpg The Tea plantation of Katakura in Suruga Province 駿州片倉茶園の不二

Sunshū Katakura chaen no Fuji

8 The Fuji from Kanaya on the Tokaido.jpg The Fuji from Kanaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道金谷の不二

Tōkaidō Kanaya no Fuji

9 Dawn at Isawa in the Kai province.jpg Dawn at Isawa in Kai Province 甲州伊沢暁

Kōshū Isawa no Akatsuki

10 The back of the Fuji from the Minobu river.jpg The back of Fuji from the Minobu river 身延川裏不二

Minobu-gawa ura Fuji

Exhibitions

A collection of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints contained in the wellness spa of the Costa Concordia was lost during the collision of the ship on January 13, 2012.[8]

All forty-six prints (the original thirty-six plus the ten additions) were featured in the exhibition "Hokusai: 36 Views of Mount Fuji" at the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the Smithsonian's museums of Asian art, in the spring of 2012.

The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints were displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston as part of a Hokusai exhibit April 5 through August 9, 2015.[9]

The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints were displayed at the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia as part of a Hokusai exhibit 21 July through 22 October 2017, featuring two copies of The Great Wave off Kanagawa, one from the NGV and one from Japan Ukiyo-e Museum.[10]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Calza, p. 30
  2. ^ a b c d Calza, p. 470
  3. ^ Calza, p. 472
  4. ^ Smith, Henry (1988). One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 9780500235188.
  5. ^ a b Smith
  6. ^ Calza, p. 230
  7. ^ Calza, p. 471
  8. ^ "Costa Concordia: Threat of treasure hunters". To Be A Travel Agent.
  9. ^ "Hokusai Features Legendary Artist, Best Known for Iconic Great Wave".
  10. ^ "Hokusai".

References

  • Nagata, Seiji (1999). Hokusai: Genius of the Japanese Ukiyo-e. Kodansha, Tokyo.
  • Smith, Henry D. II (1988). Hokusai: One Hundred Views of Mt. Fuji. George Braziller, Inc., Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-8076-1195-6.
  • Calza, Gian Carlo (2003). Hokusai. Phaidon. ISBN 0714844578.

External links

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