Ramadan montage.jpg
From top, left to right: A crescent moon over Sarıçam, Turkey, marking the beginning of the Islamic month of Ramadan. Ramadan Quran reading in Bandar Torkaman, Iran. Community Iftar meal in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Tarawah prayers in a mosque in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Foods served at a traditional Iftar meal. Ramadan decorations in Jerusalem. Zakat donation boxes in Taipei, Taiwan.
Also called
Malay: Puasa
Observed byMuslims
CelebrationsCommunity iftars and Community prayers
BeginsAt the last night of the month of Sha'ban[1]
EndsAt the last night of the month of Ramadan[1]
DateVariable (follows the Islamic lunar calendar)[2][3]
2023 date22 March – 21 April[4]
FrequencyAnnual (lunar calendar)
Related toEid al-Fitr, Qadr Night

Ramadan (Arabic: رَمَضَان, romanizedRamaḍān [ra.ma.dˤaːn];[a] also spelled Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar,[9] observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (sawm), prayer, reflection and community.[10] A commemoration of Muhammad's first revelation,[11] the annual observance of Ramadan is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam[12] and lasts twenty-nine to thirty days, from one sighting of the crescent moon to the next.[13][14]

Fasting from dawn to sunset is fard (obligatory) for all adult Muslims who are not acutely or chronically ill, travelling, elderly, breastfeeding, diabetic, or menstruating.[15] The predawn meal is referred to as suhur, and the nightly feast that breaks the fast is called iftar.[16][17] Although fatwas have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with a midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca,[18] it is common practice to follow the timetable of the closest country in which night can be distinguished from day.[19][20][21]

The spiritual rewards (thawab) of fasting are believed to be multiplied during Ramadan.[22] Accordingly, during the hours of fasting Muslims refrain not only from food and drink, but also tobacco products, sexual relations, and sinful behavior,[23][24] devoting themselves instead to salat (prayer) and study of the Quran.[25][26]


The word Ramadan derives from the Arabic root R-M-Ḍ (ر-م-ض) "scorching heat",[27] which is the Classical Arabic verb "ramiḍa (رَمِضَ)" meaning "become intensely hot – become burning; become scorching; be blazing; be glowing".

Ramadan is thought of as one of the names of God in Islam by some, and as such it is reported in many hadiths that it is prohibited to say only "Ramadan" in reference to the calendar month and that it is necessary to say "month of Ramadan", as reported in Sunni,[28][29][30][31][32][33] Shia[34][35][36][37][38][39] and Zaydi[40] sources. However, the report has been graded Mawḍūʻ (fabricated)[41] and inauthentic.[28]

In the Persian language, the Arabic letter ض (Ḍād) is pronounced as /z/. The Muslim communities in some countries with historical Persian influence, such as Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, India, Pakistan and Turkey, use the word Ramazan or Ramzan. The word Romzan is used in Bangladesh.


Chapter 2, Verse 185 in Arabic.

The month of Ramadan is that in which was revealed the Quran; a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, a number of other days. Allah desires for you ease; He desires not hardship for you; and that you should complete the period, and that you should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that perhaps you may be thankful.[Quran 2:185]

Muslims hold that all scripture was revealed during Ramadan, the scrolls of Abraham, Torah, Psalms, Gospel, and Quran having been handed down on the first, sixth, twelfth, thirteenth (in some sources, eighteenth)[42] and twenty-fourth Ramadans,[year needed] respectively.[43][self-published source] Muhammed is said to have received his first quranic revelation on Laylat al-Qadr, one of five odd-numbered nights that fall during the last ten days of Ramadan.[44]

Although Muslims were first commanded to fast in the second year of Hijra (624 CE),[43] they believe that the practice of fasting is not in fact an innovation of monotheism[45] but rather has always been necessary for believers to attain taqwa (the fear of God).[46][Quran 2:183] They point to the fact that the pre-Islamic pagans of Mecca fasted on the tenth day of Muharram to expiate sin and avoid drought.[47][self-published source] Philip Jenkins argues that the observance of Ramadan fasting grew out of "the strict Lenten discipline of the Syrian Churches," a postulation corroborated by other scholars, including theologian Paul-Gordon Chandler,[48][49] but disputed by some Muslim academics.[50]

Relation to the Jews and Yom Kippur

According to Al-Bukhari, Muhmmad initially chose the date of the fast as the day of Ashura (the 10th day of the 1st month), probably the Jewish Yom Kippur.[51] This fast was later replaced with the fast of the 9th month (Ramadan).[52]

Important dates

The first and last dates of Ramadan are determined by the lunar Islamic calendar.[3]


Ramadan beginning dates between Gregorian years 1938 and 2038; including an error on the ante-penultimate line. Note that this table is based on an unspecified variant of the Islamic calendar and that, according to local practices, there can be differences of one (or even two) days.

Because the Hilāl, or crescent moon, typically occurs approximately one day after the new moon, Muslims can usually estimate the beginning of Ramadan;[53] however, many[who?] prefer to confirm the opening of Ramadan by direct visual observation of the crescent.[54]

Night of Destiny

Qadr Night is considered the holiest night of the year.[55][56] It is generally believed to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last ten days of Ramadan; the Dawoodi Bohra believe that Laylat al-Qadr was the twenty-third night of Ramadan.[57][58]


The holiday of Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر), which marks the end of Ramadan and the beginning of Shawwal,[59] the next lunar month, is declared after a crescent new moon has been sighted or after completion of thirty days of fasting if no sighting of the moon is possible. Eid celebrates the return to a more natural disposition (fitra) of eating, drinking, and marital intimacy.[60]

Religious practices

Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor people. 1938

The common practice is to fast from dawn to sunset. The pre-dawn meal before the fast is called the suhur, while the meal at sunset that breaks the fast is called iftar.[61]

Muslims devote more time to prayer and acts of charity, striving to improve their self-discipline, motivated by hadith:[62][63] "When Ramadan arrives, the gates of Paradise are opened and the gates of hell are locked up and devils are put in chains."[64]


Ramadan is a time of spiritual reflection, self-improvement, and heightened devotion and worship. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam. The fast (sawm) begins at dawn and ends at sunset. In addition to abstaining from eating and drinking during this time, Muslims abstain from sexual relations[3] and sinful speech and behaviour during Ramadan fasting or month. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the soul by freeing it from harmful impurities. Muslims believe that Ramadan teaches them to practice self-discipline, self-control,[65] sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate, thus encouraging actions of generosity and compulsory charity (zakat).[66] Muslims also believe fasting helps instill compassion for the food-insecure poor.

Exemptions from fasting include those traveling, menstruating, severely ill, pregnant, or breastfeeding. However, Muslims in these categories may still choose to fast, in order to satisfy their spiritual needs, even though it is not recommended by hadith.[61] Those unable to fast are obligated to make up the missed days later.[67]


Each day, before dawn, Muslims observe a pre-fast meal called the suhoor. After stopping a short time before dawn, Muslims begin the first prayer of the day, Fajr.[68][69]


At sunset, families break the fast with the iftar, traditionally opening the meal by eating dates to commemorate Muhammad's practice of breaking the fast with three dates.[70][71] They then adjourn for Maghrib, the fourth of the five required daily prayers, after which the main meal is served.[72]

Social gatherings, many times in buffet style, are frequent at iftar. Traditional dishes are often highlighted, including traditional desserts, particularly those made only during Ramadan.[example needed] Water is usually the beverage of choice, but juice and milk are also often available, as are soft drinks and caffeinated beverages.[73]

In the Middle East, iftar consists of water, juices, dates, salads and appetizers; one or more main dishes; and rich desserts, with dessert considered the most important aspect of the meal.[74] Typical main dishes include lamb stewed with wheat berries, lamb kebabs with grilled vegetables, and roasted chicken served with chickpea-studded rice pilaf. Desserts may include luqaimat, baklava or kunafeh.[75]

Over time, the practice of iftar has evolved into banquets that may accommodate hundreds or even thousands of diners.[76] The Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque in Abu Dhabi, the largest mosque in the UAE, feeds up to thirty thousand people every night.[77] Some twelve thousand people attend iftar at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad.[citation needed]

Iftar serving for fasting people in the Imam Reza shrine


Men praying during Ramadan at the Shrine of Ali or "Blue Mosque" in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan
A mass prayer during the 1996 Ramadan at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
A mass prayer during the 1996 Ramadan at the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

Zakat, often translated as "the poor-rate", is the fixed percentage of income a believer is required to give to the poor; the practice is obligatory as one of the pillars of Islam. Muslims believe that good deeds are rewarded more handsomely during Ramadan than at any other time of the year; consequently, many Muslims donate a larger portion – or even all – of their yearly zakāt during this month.[citation needed]

Nightly prayers

Tarawih (Arabic: تراويح) are extra nightly prayers performed during the month of Ramadan. Contrary to popular belief, they are not compulsory.[78]

Recitation of the Quran

Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Quran, which comprises thirty juz' (sections), over the thirty days of Ramadan. Some Muslims incorporate a recitation of one juz' into each of the thirty tarawih sessions observed during the month.[citation needed]

Cultural practices

A Kebab seller from Chwakbazar Iftar Market in Old Dhaka. The Chowk Bazaar neighborhood of Old Dhaka is famous for its century-old Iftar Bazar.

In some Islamic countries, lights are strung up in public squares and across city streets,[79][80][81] a tradition believed to have originated during the Fatimid Caliphate, where the rule of Caliph al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah was acclaimed by people holding lanterns.[82]

On the island of Java, many believers bathe in holy springs to prepare for fasting, a ritual known as Padusan.[83] The city of Semarang marks the beginning of Ramadan with the Dugderan carnival, which involves parading the warak ngendog, a horse-dragon hybrid creature allegedly inspired by the Buraq.[84] In the Chinese-influenced capital city of Jakarta, firecrackers are widely used to celebrate Ramadan, although they are officially illegal.[85] Towards the end of Ramadan, most employees receive a one-month bonus known as Tunjangan Hari Raya.[86] Certain kinds of food are especially popular during Ramadan, such as large beef or buffalo in Aceh and snails in Central Java.[87] The iftar meal is announced every evening by striking the bedug, a giant drum, in the mosque.[88]

Common greetings during Ramadan include Ramadan mubarak and Ramadan kareem, which mean (have a) "blessed Ramadan" and "generous Ramadan" respectively.[89]

During Ramadan in the Middle East, a mesaharati beats a drum across a neighbourhood to wake people up to eat the suhoor meal. Similarly in Southeast Asia, the kentongan slit drum is used for the same purpose.

In Gulf countries, children dress in traditional attire and go door-to-door to receive sweets and nuts from neighbours on the 15th night of Ramadan

Observance rates

According to a 2012 Pew Research Centre study, there was widespread Ramadan observance, with a median of 93 percent across the thirty-nine countries and territories studied.[90] Regions with high percentages of fasting among Muslims include Southeast Asia, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa, Horn of Africa and most of Sub-Saharan Africa.[90] Percentages are lower in Central Asia and Southeast Europe.[90]


In some Muslim countries, eating in public during daylight hours in Ramadan is a crime.[91][92][93] The sale of alcohol becomes prohibited during Ramadan in Egypt.[94] The penalty for publicly eating, drinking or smoking during Ramadan can result in fines or incarceration in the countries of Kuwait,[95][96] Saudi Arabia,[97][98][99] Morocco,[100][101] Algeria[102] and Malaysia.[103] In the United Arab Emirates, the punishment is community service.[104]

In some countries, on the contrary, the observance of Ramadan has been restricted by governments. In the USSR, the practice of Ramadan was suppressed by officials.[105][106] In Albania, Ramadan festivities were banned during the communist period.[107] However, many Albanians continued to fast secretly during this period.[108]

China is reported to have banned Ramadan fasting for officials, students, and teachers in Xinjiang since 2012.[109][110][111] Radio Free Asia alleged that residents in Kashgar Prefecture were encouraged to report those who fasted to the authorities.[112] The ban has been denied by Chinese diplomats[113] and Muslim associations in Xinjiang.[114] Antara News,[115] Daily Times,[116] and Pakistan Today have also brought up accounts of residents in Xinjiang fasting.[117]

Some countries impose modified work schedules. In the UAE, employees may work no more than six hours per day and thirty-six hours per week. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait have similar laws.[118]

Health effects

There are various health effects of fasting in Ramadan. Ramadan fasting is considered safe for healthy individuals; it may pose risks for individuals with certain pre-existing conditions. Most Islamic scholars hold that fasting is not required for those who are ill. Additionally, the elderly and pre-pubertal children are exempt from fasting.[119] Pregnant or lactating women are also exempt from fasting during Ramadan.[120] There are known health risks involved in pregnant women who fast, which include the potential of induced labour and gestational diabetes.[121][122][123][124][125]

There are some health benefits of fasting in Ramadan including increasing insulin sensitivity and reducing insulin resistance.[126] It has also been shown that there is a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile, systolic blood pressure, weight, BMI and waist circumference in subjects with a previous history of cardiovascular disease.[127] The fasting period is usually associated with modest weight loss, but weight can return afterwards.[128]

In many cultures, it is associated with heavy food and water intake during Suhur and Iftar times, which may do more harm than good.[129] Ramadan fasting is safe for healthy people provided that overall food and water intake is adequate but those with medical conditions should seek medical advice if they encounter health problems before or during fasting.[130]

The education departments of Berlin and the United Kingdom have tried to discourage students from fasting during Ramadan, as they claim that not eating or drinking can lead to concentration problems and bad grades.[131][132]

A review of the literature by an Iranian group suggested fasting during Ramadan might produce renal injury in patients with moderate (GFR <60 ml/min) or severe kidney disease but was not injurious to renal transplant patients with good function or most stone-forming patients.[133]

Conversion of Hijri years 1343 to 1500 to the Gregorian calendar, with first days of al-Muharram (brown), Ramadan (grey) and Shawwal (black) bolded, and Eid al-Adha dotted – in the SVG file, hover over a spot to show its dates and a line to show the month

A study on 55 professional Algerian soccer players showed that performance during Ramadan declined significantly for speed, agility, dribbling speed and endurance, and most stayed low 2 weeks after the conclusion of Ramadan.[134]

Ramadan in polar regions

The length of the dawn to sunset time varies in different parts of the world according to summer or winter solstices of the Sun. Most Muslims fast for eleven to sixteen hours during Ramadan. However, in polar regions, the period between dawn and sunset may exceed twenty-two hours in summer. For example, in 2014, Muslims in Reykjavik, Iceland, and Trondheim, Norway, fasted almost twenty-two hours, while Muslims in Sydney, Australia, fasted for only about eleven hours. In areas characterized by continuous night or day, some Muslims follow the fasting schedule observed in the nearest city that experiences sunrise and sunset, while others follow Mecca time.[19][20][21]

Ramadan in Earth orbit

Muslim astronauts in space schedule religious practices around the time zone of their last location on Earth. For example, this means an astronaut from Malaysia launching from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida would center their fast according to sunrise and sunset in Florida's Eastern Time. This includes times for daily prayers, as well as sunset and sunrise for Ramadan.[135][136]

Employment during Ramadan

Muslims continue to work during Ramadan;[137][138] however, in some countries, such as Oman and Lebanon, working hours are shortened.[139][140] It is often recommended that working Muslims inform their employers if they are fasting, given the potential for the observance to impact performance at work.[141] The extent to which Ramadan observers are protected by religious accommodation varies by country. Policies putting them at a disadvantage compared to other employees have been met with discrimination claims in the United Kingdom and the United States.[142][143][144] An Arab News article reported that Saudi Arabian businesses were unhappy with shorter working hours during Ramadan, some reporting a decline in productivity of 35–50%.[145] The Saudi businesses proposed awarding salary bonuses in order to incentivize longer hours.[146] Despite the reduction in productivity, merchants can enjoy higher profit margins in Ramadan due to increase in demand.[147]

See also



  1. ^ According to Arabic phonology, it can be realized as [rɑmɑˈdˤɑːn, ramaˈdˤɑːn, ræmæˈdˤɑːn], depending on the region. /ˌræməˈdɑːn/, also US: /ˌrɑːm-, ˈræmədɑːn, ˈrɑːm-/,[5][6][7] UK: /ˈræmədæn/;[8]


  1. ^ a b Clark, Malcolm (2003). Islam For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0764555039.
  2. ^ "The Umm al-Qura Calendar of Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
  3. ^ a b c "Ramadan to start May 27 or May 28". aljazeera.com/. Archived from the original on 27 April 2017. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Islamic Hijri Calendar 2023". islamicfinder.org.
  5. ^ "Ramadan". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Ramadan". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  7. ^ "Ramadan". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Ramadan". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020.
  9. ^ BBC – Religions Archived 28 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 25 July 2012
  10. ^ "Ramadan: Fasting and Traditions". Archived from the original on 22 March 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Ramadan 2020: Date, importance, wishes, quotes, messages, and pictures". India Today.
  12. ^ "Schools – Religions". BBC. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  13. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  14. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2378". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  15. ^ Fasting (Al Siyam) – الصيام – p. 18, el Bahay el Kholi, 1998
  16. ^ Islam, Andrew Egan – 2002 – p. 24
  17. ^ Dubai – p. 189, Andrea Schulte-Peevers – 2010
  18. ^ "Ramadan in the Farthest North". Saudi Aramco World. Archived from the original on 4 February 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  19. ^ a b See article "How Long Muslims Fast For Ramadan Around The World" -Huffpost.com /31 July 2014 and article "Fasting Hours of Ramadan 2014" -Onislam.net / 29 June 2014 and article "The true spirit of Ramadan" -Gulfnews.com /31 July 2014
  20. ^ a b See article by Imam Mohamad Jebara "The fasting of Ramadan is not meant to punish" https://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/jebara-the-fasting-of-ramadan-is-not-meant-to-punish Archived 7 May 2019 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ a b Kassam, Ashifa (3 July 2016). "Arctic Ramadan: fasting in land of midnight sun comes with a challenge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 July 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  22. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  23. ^ Smith, Jane I. (2010). Islam in America. Columbia University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0231147101. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  24. ^ Hotaling, Edward (2003). Islam Without Illusions: Its Past, Its Present, and Its Challenge for the Future. Syracuse University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0815607663. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
  25. ^ Abu Dawud-Ibn-Ash'ath-AsSijisstani, Sulayman. "Sunan Abu-Dawud – (The Book of Prayer) – Detailed Injunctions about Ramadan, Hadith 1370". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement of The University of Southern California. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  26. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 199". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  27. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2391". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  28. ^ a b Al-Bayhaqi, Abu Bakr. Sunnan al-Kubra (in Arabic). Vol. 4. p. Book 11, Ch. 6, No. 7904. قال رسولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّىٰ اللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: 'لا تَقولوا «رَمَضَانُ»، فإِنَّ رَمَضانَ اسمٌ مِن أسماءِ اللَّهِ، ولَكِن قولوا «شَهرُ رَمَضانَ».' وهَكَذا رَواه الحارِثُ بنُ عبدِ اللَّهِ الخازِنُ عن أبي مَعشَرٍ. وأبو مَعشَرٍ هو نَجيحٌ السِّندِىُّ، ضَعَّفَه يَحيَى بنُ مَعين
  29. ^ Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir. Tafsir al-Tabari (in Arabic). Vol. 3. p. 187. أَنَّهُ كَرِهَ أَنْ يُقَالُ «رَمَضَانَ»، وَيَقُولُ: لَعَلَّهُ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ، لَٰكِنَّ نَقُولُ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّٰهُ: «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ»
  30. ^ Al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din. Tafsir al-Kabir (in Arabic). Vol. 5. p. 251. عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّىٰ اللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «جَاءَ رَمَضَانُ» وَ«ذَهَبَ رَمَضَانُ» وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «جَاءَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» وَ«ذَهَبَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» فَإِنَّ رَمَضَانَ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ تَعَالَىٰ.
  31. ^ Ibn Abu Hatim, Abdul Rahman. Tafsir Ibn Abu Hatim (in Arabic). Vol. 1. p. 310, Nu. 1648. لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «رَمَضَانُ»، فَإِنَّ رَمَضَانَ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ، وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ»
  32. ^ Al-Dimashqi, Tamam. Fawa'id al-Tamam (in Arabic). Vol. 1. p. 104, Nu. 241. قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّٰهِ صَلَّىٰ اللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: لَا يَقُولَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ «صُمْتُ رَمَضَانَ»، وَ«قُمْتُ رَمَضَانَ»، وَلَا «صَنَعْتُ فِي رَمَضَانَ كَذَا وَكَذَا»، فَإِنَّ رَمَضَانَ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْعِظَامِ، وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» كَمَا قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ
  33. ^ Ibn al-Saqri, Abu Tahir. Mashyakhah (in Arabic). Vol. 1. p. 126, Nu. 52. عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّٰهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّٰهِ مَا مَعْنَىٰ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّٰهِ صَلَّىٰ اللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: يَا حُمَيْرَاءُ لَا تَقُولِي «رَمَضَانُ» فَإِنَّهُ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ وَلَٰكِنْ قُولِي «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» يَعْنِي رَمَضَانَ أَرْمَضَ فِيهِ ذُنُوبَ عِبَادِهِ فَغَفَرَهَا
  34. ^ Al-Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub. Al-Kafi (in Arabic). p. Book 14 (the Book of Fasting), Ch. 4. قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ): لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «هَٰذَا رَمَضَانُ» وَلَا «ذَهَبَ رَمَضَانُ» وَلَا «جَاءَ رَمَضَانُ» فَإِنَّ رَمَضَانَ اسْمٌ مِنْ أَسْمَاءِ اللَّٰهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَا يَجِيءُ وَلَا يَذْهَبُ وَإِنَّمَا يَجِيءُ وَيَذْهَبُ الزَّائِلُ وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» فَإِنَّ الشَّهْرَ مُضَافٌ إِلَىٰ الْاسْمِ وَالاسْمُ اسْمُ اللَّٰهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ
  35. ^ Ibn Babawayh, al-Saduq. Man La Yahduruhu al-Faqih (in Arabic). Vol. 2. p. 182. قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ): لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «رَمَضَانُ» وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ» فَإِنَّكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ مَا رَمَضَانُ
  36. ^ Al-Hurr Al-Amili, Muhammad. Wasa'il al-Shia (in Arabic). Vol. 10. p. Ch. 19. عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ) قَالَ: لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «رَمَضَانُ» فَإِنَّكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ مَا رَمَضَانُ فَمَنْ قَالَهُ فَلْيَتَصَدَّقْ وَلْيَصُمْ كَفَّارَهً لِقَوْلِهِ وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّٰهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ»
  37. ^ Al-Majlisi, Muhammad-Baqir. Bihar al-Anwar (in Arabic). Vol. 93. p. Ch. 48.
  38. ^ Ibn Tawus, Sayyid. Al-Iqbal Bil-Amal (in Arabic). Vol. 2. p. 29.
  39. ^ Al-Nouri Al-Tabarsi, Husayn. Mustadrak al-Wasa'il (in Arabic). Vol. 7. p. Ch. 12, Hadith 1, Nu. 8609.
  40. ^ Al-Shajari, Yahya bin Hussein. Al-Amali Al-Khamisiyah (in Arabic). Vol. 1. p. 380, Nu. 1355. أَنَّ عَلِيًّا عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ كَانَ يَقُولُ: لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «رَمَضَانُ» فَإِنَّكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ مَا رَمَضَانُ فَمَنْ قَالَهُ فَلْيَتَصَدَّقْ وَلْيَصُمْ كَفَّارَةً لِقَوْلِهِ، وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّٰهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ»
  41. ^ Ibn al-Jawzi, Abdul Rahman. Al-Mawdu'at (in Arabic). Vol. 2. p. 187. قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّٰهِ صَلَّىٰ اللَّٰهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: لَا تَقُولُوا۟ «رَمَضَانُ» فَإِنَّ رَمَضَانَ اسْمُ اللَّٰهِ، وَلَٰكِنْ قُولُوا۟ «شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ»
  42. ^ Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1490705217.
  43. ^ a b Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-1490705217.[self-published source]
  44. ^ Ad-Dausaree, Mahmood Bin Ahmad Bin Saaleh (2006). The Magnificence of Quran. Darussalam Publishers.
  45. ^ Quran Chapter 2, Revelation 183
  46. ^ al-Uthaymeen, Shaikh Saalih. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam (Salafi): Sharh Usool ath-Thalatha of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahaab. Salafi Books. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020.
  47. ^ Aliyev, Rafig Y. (2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 978-1490705217.[self-published source]
  48. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2006). The New Faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South. p. 182. Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
  49. ^ Chandler, Paul-Gordon (2008). Pilgrims of Christ on the Muslim Road: Exploring a New Path Between Two Faiths. Cowley Publications. p. 88. ISBN 978-0742566033.
  50. ^ Muhammad Mustafa al-Azami, "The History of The Quranic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments", 2nd Edition (2008), Azami Publishing House
  51. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari 2004 - Fasting - كتاب الصوم - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  52. ^ "Virtues of fasting on Ashura". Arab News. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2022.
  53. ^ Hilal Sighting & Islamic Dates: Issues and Solution Insha'Allaah Archived 6 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Hilal Sighting Committee of North America (website Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine). Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  54. ^ Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  55. ^ Robinson, Neal (1999). Islam: A Concise Introduction. Washington: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 978-0-87840-224-3.
  56. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  57. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 032 (Praying at Night during Ramadhan), Hadith 238". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  58. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2632". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  59. ^ "Eid al-Fitr in the United States". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  60. ^ "Ruling on Voluntary Fasting After The Month of Ramadan: Eid Day(s) And Ash-Shawaal". EsinIslam, Arab News & Information – By Adil Salahi. 11 September 2010. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  61. ^ a b "Ramadan". Britannica.
  62. ^ "Book of Fasting – Sahih al-Bukhari – Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  63. ^ "Sahih Muslim Book 006, Hadith Number 2361". Hadith Collection. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  64. ^ "Muslims observe Ramadan, clerics explain significance". Guardian News, Nigeria. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  65. ^ Why Ramadan brings us together Archived 30 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine; BBC, 1 September 2008
  66. ^ Help for the Heavy at Ramadan Archived 20 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, 27 September 2008
  67. ^ Quran 2:184
  68. ^ Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain (2009). "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2415". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  69. ^ Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad (2009). "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 144". hadithcollection.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  70. ^ The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Esposito, John L. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-19-512558-4. OCLC 50280143.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  71. ^ Indrayani, Suharti (2018). "How do Muslims consume dates?" (PDF). Pakistani Journal of Medical and Health Sciences. 12: 1732–1743. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2020.
  72. ^ Fletcher Stoeltje, Melissa (22 August 2009). "Muslims fast and feast as Ramadan begins". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  73. ^ El-Zibdeh, Dr. Nour. "Understanding Muslim Fasting Practices". todaysdietitian.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  74. ^ Goldstein, Darra (April 2015). The Oxford companion to sugar and sweets. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-931361-7. OCLC 905969818.
  75. ^ Levy, Faye; Levy, Yakir (21 July 2012). "Ramadan's high note is often a dip". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  76. ^ Davis, James D. (8 August 2010). "Ramadan: Muslims feast and fast during holy month". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  77. ^ "Abu Dhabi's Grand Mosque feeds 30,000 during Ramadan". euronews.com. Euro News. 10 May 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  78. ^ "Tarawih Prayer a Nafl or Sunnah". Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  79. ^ "Muslims begin fasting for Ramadan". ABC News. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  80. ^ Taryam Al Subaihi (29 July 2012). "The spirit of Ramadan is here, but why is it still so dark?". The National. Archived from the original on 31 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
  81. ^ Cochran, Sylvia (8 August 2011). "How to decorate for Ramadan". Yahoo-Shine. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  82. ^ Harrison, Peter (9 June 2016). "How did the Ramadan lantern become a symbol of the holy month?". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 6 May 2019.[permanent dead link]
  83. ^ "This Is How Indonesia Welcomes Ramadan". Jakarta Globe. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  84. ^ "Tradisi Dugderan di Kota Semarang". Mata Sejarah (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 12 April 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  85. ^ Sims, Calvin (19 December 2000). "Jakarta Journal; It's Ramadan. School Is Out. Quick, the Earplugs!". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  86. ^ "Understanding the Religious Holiday Allowance THR in Indonesia". Emerhub. 6 December 2018. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  87. ^ Maryono, Agus; Endi, Severianus (7 July 2014). "On the hunt for delectable snacks". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  88. ^ Saifudeen, Yousuf (12 June 2016). "Diverse traditions that welcome the holy month in Indonesia". Khaleej Times. Archived from the original on 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  89. ^ Ramadan 2015: Facts, History, Dates, Greeting And Rules About The Muslim Fast Archived 10 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Huffington Post, 15 June 2015
  90. ^ a b c "Most Muslims say they fast during Ramadan". Pew Research Center. 9 July 2013. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  91. ^ "Ramadan 2019: 9 questions about the Muslim holy month you were too embarrassed to ask". Vox. 6 June 2016.
  92. ^ "Breaking Pakistan's Ramadan Fasting Laws Has Serious Consequences". NPR.org. NPR.
  93. ^ "Not so fast! Ramadan laws in Arab countries make you think twice before digging in". Albawaba News.
  94. ^ "Egypt's tourism minister 'confirms' alcohol prohibition on Islamic holidays beyond Ramadan Archived 11 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine," Al-Ahram, 22 July 2012.
  95. ^ "Press release by Kuwait Ministry Of Interior". Archived from the original on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  96. ^ "KD 100 fine, one month prison for public eating, drinking". Friday Times. Kuwait Times Newspaper. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  97. ^ "Ramadan in Saudi Arabia: Taking it to heart". The Economist. 11 June 2016. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  98. ^ Hyslop, Leah (24 July 2012). "Ramadan warning for expats in Saudi Arabia". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 October 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  99. ^ Ramadan in numbers Archived 12 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, 10 July 2013, The Guardian
  100. ^ "Morocco's Penal Code and Public Eating in Ramadan". moroccoworldnews.com. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  101. ^ Latrech, Oumaima (27 April 2022). "Ramadan: 80 Moroccans Arrested for Publicly Eating in Casablanca". moroccoworldnews.com. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  102. ^ "Algerians jailed for breaking Ramadan fast". Al Arabiya News. 7 October 2008. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008.
  103. ^ "The Hard and Fast Rules of Ramadan". 14 July 2015. Archived from the original on 14 April 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  104. ^ Salama, Samir (16 July 2009). "New penalty for minor offences in UAE". Gulf News. Dubai, UAE: Al Nisr Publishing LLC. Archived from the original on 1 March 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
  105. ^ Leo Paul Dana. When Economies Change Paths: Models of Transition in China, the Central Asian Republics, Myanmar & the Nations of Former Indochine Française. p. 162.
  106. ^ James Minahan. The Former Soviet Union's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. p. 133.
  107. ^ Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. p. 165.
  108. ^ "In Albania, Ramadan under lockdown revives memories of communism". Arab News. 25 April 2020.
  109. ^ Cagnassola, Mary Ellen (6 May 2021). "170 mosques destroyed in China's Xinjiang crackdown, Australian think tank says". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 17 March 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  110. ^ "China region bans Muslims from fasting during Ramadan". The National, Agence France Presse. 1 August 2012.
  111. ^ "China bans Muslims from fasting Ramadan in Xinjiang". Al-Jazeera English, Agence France Presse.
  112. ^ Shohret Hoshur, Joshua Lipes (14 May 2020). "Residents of Uyghur-Majority County in Xinjiang Ordered to Report Others Fasting During Ramadan". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Elise Anderson, Alim Seytoff. Retrieved 17 May 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  113. ^ "Come see China Muslim culture for yourselves, embassy says". Malaysiakini. 7 May 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  114. ^ M. Irfan Ilmie, Atman Ahdiat (18 March 2021). "Uighur Muslim Community invites global media to witness Ramadan rituals". Antara News (in Indonesian).
  115. ^ "Muslims in Xinjiang begin Ramadan". Jawa Pos, Antara News (in Indonesian). 14 April 2021.
  116. ^ S M Hali (13 December 2019). "Uyghur Human Rights Policy Act of 2019 — a harsh step". Daily Times.
  117. ^ "No restriction over Muslims to observe Ramzan in Xinjiang: JI spokesperson". Pakistan Today. 2 July 2016.
  118. ^ Employment Issues During Ramadan – The Gulf Region[permanent dead link], DLA Piper Middle East.
  119. ^ Abolaban, H.; Al-Moujahed, A. (2017). "Muslim patients in Ramadan: A review for primary care physicians". Avicenna J Med. 7 (3): 81–87. doi:10.4103/ajm.AJM_76_17. PMC 5525471. PMID 28791239.
  120. ^ El-Bahay El-Kholi. Al Siyam, "Fasting". The Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Arab Republic of Egypt. p. 36.
  121. ^ Glazier, JD; Hayes, DJL; Hussain, S; D'Souza, SW; Whitcombe, J; Heazell, AEP; Ashton, N (25 October 2018). "The effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 18 (1): 421. doi:10.1186/s12884-018-2048-y. PMC 6202808. PMID 30359228.
  122. ^ Islamic Studies Maldives
  123. ^ Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Stephen; Wagner, Marion; Shehata, Hassan (2013). "Obesity, Polycystic Ovaries and Impaired Reproductive Outcome". Obesity. pp. 289–298. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-416045-3.00022-4. ISBN 978-0-12-416045-3.
  124. ^ Mirghani, HM; Hamud, OA (January 2006). "The effect of maternal diet restriction on pregnancy outcome". American Journal of Perinatology. 23 (1): 21–24. doi:10.1055/s-2005-923435. PMID 16450268.
  125. ^ Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E.; Al-Holy, Murad A. (1 April 2014). "Implications of Ramadan intermittent fasting on maternal and fetal health and nutritional status: A review". Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 7 (2): 107–118. doi:10.3233/MNM-140011.
  126. ^ Shariatpanahi, Z. Vahdat, et al. "Effect of Ramadan fasting on some indices of insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in healthy male adults." British Journal of Nutrition 100.1 (2008): 147–151.
  127. ^ Nematy, Mohsen, et al. "Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study." Nutrition journal 11.1 (2012): 69.
  128. ^ Sadeghirad B, Motaghipisheh S, Kolahdooz F, Zahedi MJ, Haghdoost AA (2014). "Islamic fasting and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Public Health Nutr. 17 (2): 396–406. doi:10.1017/S1368980012005046. PMID 23182306.
  129. ^ "Should your water intake change during Ramadan?". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  130. ^ Azizi F (2010). "Islamic fasting and health". Ann. Nutr. Metab. 56 (4): 273–282. doi:10.1159/000295848. PMID 20424438. S2CID 13428042.
  131. ^ Espinoza, Javier (3 June 2016). "Schools say Muslim students 'should break Ramadan fast' to avoid bad grades". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022.
  132. ^ Islam und Schule: Handreichung für Lehrerinnen und Lehrer an Berliner Schulen (in German). Zentral- und Landesbibliothek Berlin ZLB. Senatsbibliothek. 2010. OCLC 824393822.
  133. ^ Emami-Naini A, Roomizadeh P, Baradaran A, Abedini A, Abtahi M (August 2013). "Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature". J Res Med Sci. Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 18 (8): 711–716. ISSN 1735-1995. PMC 3872613. PMID 24379850.
  134. ^ Zerguini, Yacine; Kirkendall, Donald; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri (1 June 2007). "Impact of Ramadan on physical performance in professional soccer players". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 41 (6): 398–400. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.032037. ISSN 0306-3674. PMC 2465333. PMID 17224435.
  135. ^ A Guideline of Performing Ibadah at the International Space Station (ISS)
  136. ^ Donadio, Rachel (9 December 2007). "Interstellar Ramadan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  137. ^ "Ramadan 2019: Why is it so important for Muslims?". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  138. ^ Gilfillan_1, Scott (3 May 2019). "Supporting Muslim colleagues during Ramadan". TUC. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  139. ^ "Ramadan working hours announced in Oman". Times of Oman. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  140. ^ "Ramadan working hours announced for public and private sectors". Times of Oman. 10 June 2015. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  141. ^ "The Working Muslim in Ramadan" (PDF). Working Muslim. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  142. ^ Lewis Silkin (26 April 2016). "Lewis Silkin – Ramadan – employment issues". lewissilkinemployment.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  143. ^ "Reasonable Accommodations for Ramadan? Lessons From 2 EEOC Cases". Free Enterprise. 27 June 2014. Archived from the original on 7 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  144. ^ "EEOC And Electrolux Reach Settlement in Religious Accommodation Charge Brought By Muslim Employees". eeoc.gov. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  145. ^ Hasan, Rumy (3 July 2015). "The costs of Ramadan need to be counted". The Guardian.
  146. ^ "Businesses want more working hours in Ramadan".
  147. ^ Cook, Erin (19 June 2017). "The Ramadan Productivity Drop And How To Overcome It". Indonesia Expat.

External links


Article Ramadan in English Wikipedia took following places in local popularity ranking:

Presented content of the Wikipedia article was extracted in 2023-04-01 based on https://en.wikipedia.org/?curid=26173