Lunar New Year is particularly celebrated in East Asia, influenced by the Chinese New Year and the Chinese Calendar. It is also a feature of the Hindu-Buddhist calendars of South and Southeast Asia, the Islamic calendar and the Jewish calendar.
The modern East Asian Lunar New Year celebrations usually fall on the same date across the region (which occurs in late January or early February).
The following were derived from the Chinese New Year in ancient history, but are completely unique to their own cultures, using traditional Chinese calendar but sometimes with different interpretations, zodiacs or traditions. China, Korea and Vietnam still celebrate them in addition to the Solar New Year, whilst Japan has their own version. They occur on similar dates:
The following are influenced by the Chinese calendar during the long history of China:
Before new year celebration was formed, ancient Chinese gathered around and celebrated at the end of harvest in autumn. However, the celebration is not Mid-Autumn Festival, during which Chinese gathered with family and worship the moon. In the Classic of Poetry, a poem written during Western Zhou (1045 BC – 771 BC), by an anonymous farmer, described how people cleaned up millet stack-sites, toasted to guests with mijiu, killed lambs and cooked the meat, went to their master's home, toasted to the master, and cheered for long lives together, in the 10th month of an ancient solar calendars, which was in autumn. The celebration is believed to be one of the prototypes of the Chinese New Year.
The first dated Chinese new year celebration can be traced back to Warring States period (475 BC – 221 AD). In Lüshi Chunqiu, a exorcistic ritual called "Big Nuo (大儺)" was recorded being carried out in the ending day of a year to expel illness in Qin (state). Later, after Qin unified China and the Qin dynasty was founded, the ritual was continued. It evolved to cleaning up houses thoroughly in the preceding days of Chinese New Year.
The first mentioning of celebration of the start of a new year was recorded in Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD). In the book Simin Yueling (四民月令), written by Eastern Han's agronomist and writer Cui Shi (崔寔), celebration was recorded by stating "The starting day of the first month, is called ‘Zheng Ri’. I bring my wife and children, to worship ancestors and commemorate my father." Later he wrote: "Children, wife, grandchildren, and great grandchildren all serve pepper wine to their parents, make their toast, and wish their parents good health. It's a thriving view." People also went to acquaintances' homes and wished each others happy new year. In Book of the Later Han Volume 27, 吴良, a county officer was recorded going to his prefect's house with a government secretary, toasting to the prefect and praising the prefect's merit.
The earliest references to Korean New Year are found in 7th century in Chinese historical works, the Book of Sui and the Old Book of Tang, containing excerpts of celebrations during the New Year in the Silla Kingdom, back when the kingdom's calendar was influenced by Tang dynasty's calendaric system.
The earliest celebration of Lunar New Year in Vietnam is believed brought by Zhao Tuo, a Qin dynasty Chinese general, the first king of Nanyue and the founder of the Nanyue 2000 years ago. In 204 BCE, Zhao Tuo established the Nanyue Kingdom, which is composed of Guangxi, Guangdong and Northern Vietnam today. Chinese policies, cultures, traditions such as Lunar New Year were brought in the times when he ruled Northern Vietnam.
Officially, the first Vietnamese new year can be traced back to Ly dynasty (1009 AD - 1226 AD), various Vietnamese documents recorded how people paint tattoos on themselves, gather together and drink traditional Vietnamese rice liquor, welcome guests to eat Chung cakes, etc. During the period of King Le Thanh Tong (1442 AD - 1497 AD), Tet (Vietnamese Lunar New Year) was considered the most important festival in Vietnam.
These South Asian traditional lunisolar celebrations are observed according to the local lunisolar calendars. They are influenced by Indian tradition, which marks the system of lunar months in a solar sidereal year. A separate solar new year also exists for those Indian regions which use solar months in a solar sidereal year.
The following are influenced by the Tibetan calendar:
Various lunar calendars continue to be used throughout India in traditional and religious life. However, they are different from the East Asian Lunar Calendar. The two most common lunar new year celebrations in India are Diwali, and Gudi Padwa/Ugadi/Puthandu.
In ancient times, the sun's entry into Aries coincided with the equinox. However, due to the earth's axial precession, the sidereal year is slightly longer than the tropical year, causing the dates to gradually drift apart. Today, the sun's entry into Aries occurs around 18 April, according to astronomical definitions. Some traditional calendars are still marked by the sun's actual movements while others have since been fixed to the Gregorian calendar.
The following Southeast Asian Lunar New Year celebration is observed according to the local lunisolar calendar and is influenced by Indian Hindu traditions.
The following Southeast Asian Lunar New Year celebration is observed according to the local lunisolar calendar and is influenced by Islamic traditions.
Lunar New Year celebrations that originated in Middle East fall on other days:
Hobiyee, also spelled Hoobiyee, Hobiyee, Hobiiyee and Hoobiiyee, is the Nisg̱a'a new year celebrated every February / March. Nisg̱a'a are Indigenous people of Canada. It signifies the emergence of the first crescent moon and begins the month Buxw-laḵs. Celebrations of Hobiyee are done by Nisg̱a'a wherever they are located, but the largest celebrations are in Nisg̱a'a itself and in areas with a large Nisg̱a'a presence like Vancouver.
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...十月涤場。 朋酒斯飨，曰殺羔羊。 躋彼公堂，稱彼兕觥，萬壽無疆。
Presented content of the Wikipedia article was extracted in 2021-06-13 based on https://en.wikipedia.org/?curid=288586