KRI Nanggala (402)

Indonesian submarine KRI Nanggala (402) underway in August 2015.JPG
KRI Nanggala underway in the Java Sea, August 2015
History
Indonesia
Name: KRI Nanggala
Namesake: Divine spear of Prabhu Baladewa
Ordered: 2 April 1977
Builder: Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft
Laid down: 14 March 1978
Launched: 10 September 1980
Completed: 6 July 1981
Commissioned: 21 October 1981
Out of service: 21 April 2021
Stricken: 2021
Identification: Pennant number 402
Fate: Sank during torpedo drill, 21 April 2021
Badge: KRI Nanggala badge.svg
General characteristics
Class and type: Cakra-class attack submarine
Displacement:
  • 1,285 tons surfaced
  • 1,390 tons submerged
Length: 59.5 m (195 ft 3 in)
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in)
Draft: 5.4 m (17 ft 9 in)
Propulsion:
  • 4 × MTU 12V493 AZ80 GA31L diesel engines rated at 1.8 MW (2,400 hp)[1]
  • 4 × Siemens alternators rated at 2,300 hp (1.7 MW)
  • 1 × Siemens motor rated at 3.4 MW (4,600 hp)
  • 1 × shaft
Speed:
  • 11 knots (20 km/h; 13 mph) surfaced[1]
  • 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph) submerged
Range: 8,200 nmi (15,200 km; 9,400 mi) at 8 kn (15 km/h; 9.2 mph)
Endurance: 50 days[1]
Test depth: 240 m (790 ft)[1]
Complement: 50 including special forces unit[2]
Crew: 6 officers, 28 enlisted[3]
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
  • ESM : Thomson-CSF DR2000U[1]
  • CMS : Kongsberg MSI-90U Mk 2[4]
Armament:
  • 8 × 533 mm (21 in) bow tubes[1]
  • 14 × AEG SUT torpedoes

KRI Nanggala (402), also known as Nanggala II, was one of two Cakra-class Type 209/1300 diesel-electric attack submarines of the Indonesian Navy. In April 2021, the vessel sank in the Bali Sea and all 53 personnel aboard were killed.

Ordered in 1977, it was launched in 1980, and commissioned in 1981. The submarine conducted intelligence gathering operations in the Indian Ocean and around East Timor and North Kalimantan. It was a participant of the international Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training naval exercise, and conducted a passing exercise with USS Oklahoma City. The vessel underwent a major refit in 2012.

Nanggala was declared missing on 21 April 2021, hours after losing contact with surface personnel while it was underwater. It was in the middle of a torpedo drill in waters north of Bali and had fired a live SUT torpedo before it went missing. The navy estimated that the submarine's oxygen supply would last for about three days, and multiple domestic and international vessels were sent to search for Nanggala.

Three days later, on 24 April, debris from the submarine was found on the surface, and the Indonesian Navy declared Nanggala sunk. The next day, scans positively identified the remains of Nanggala, and the loss of all 53 crew members on board was confirmed. The death of 53 sailors constitutes the largest reported loss of life aboard a submarine since the Chinese submarine Changcheng 361 malfunctioned in April 2003.

Name

The submarine was named after the Nanggala, a powerful, divine short spear wielded by Prabhu Baladewa, a Hindu god mentioned in the Mahabharata and a character in wayang puppet theatre.[5][6] Legend states that the spear is capable of melting mountains and splitting oceans.[7] The weapon is depicted on the submarine's badge.

The vessel was also known as Nanggala II in order to differentiate it from RI Nanggala (S-02), an older Whiskey-class submarine sharing the same name.[8]

Design and construction

Members of the first crew
KRI Nanggala before 2012 refitting
Training near East Kalimantan, 1992
Periscope (above) and control room, in 2017 after South Korean refitting

KRI Nanggala was ordered on 2 April 1977,[9] and was financed as part of a US$625 million loan by the West German government to the Indonesian government.[10] About $100 million was spent on the submarine and its Cakra-class counterpart, KRI Cakra.[10] The vessel was designed by Ingenieurkontor Lübeck of Lübeck, constructed by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft of Kiel, and sold by Ferrostaal of Essen – all acting together as a West German consortium.[1] It is a variant of the Type 209 submarine.

Nanggala was laid down on 14 March 1978 and launched on 10 September 1980.[1] It was tested in West German waters before it was handed over to Indonesia on 6 July 1981.[8] Nanggala left West Germany in early August 1981 with 38 crew members under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Armand Aksyah.[8] The submarine was first presented to the public on the 36th anniversary of the Indonesian National Armed Forces on 5 October 1981.[11] Sixteen days later, it was commissioned by Minister of Defense and Security General M. Jusuf.[12]

Historical context

During the 1960s, Indonesia was known as one of the largest Asian naval powers, with 12 Soviet-made Whiskey-class submarines in its fleet.[13][14] However, by 1981, during the Indonesian New Order, when Cakra and Nanggala arrived in Indonesia to reinforce the country's naval defenses, only one of the 12 Whiskey-class submarines had still retained the ability to dive.[15][13] The Indonesian government had planned to purchase a Type 206A submarine from Germany in the late 1990s, but was unable to do so due to funding issues.[14]

During the beginning of the Reform Era, an embargo on military equipment imposed by the U.S., as well as continuing financial problems experienced as a result of the Asian financial crisis, meant that the Indonesian Navy was unable to procure any additional submarines until 2017.[14][13] As a result, Cakra and Nanggala were the only active submarines in the Indonesian Navy between the decommissioning of KRI Pasopati in 1994[16] and the commissioning of KRI Nagapasa in 2017.[17][18]

By 2020, Indonesia had made plans to own and operate eight submarines by 2024.[14]

Service history

Nanggala participated in several naval exercises, including the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training exercises in 2002 and 2015.[19][20] In 2004, the boat participated in the Joint Marine Operations Exercise held in the Indian Ocean, during which it sank the decommissioned KRI Rakata.[19][21] In August 2012, the boat conducted a passing exercise with USS Oklahoma City, accompanied by KRI Diponegoro and a Bölkow-Blohm helicopter.[22]

The submarine conducted a number of intelligence gathering operations in the waters around Indonesia, including one in the Indian Ocean from April to May 1992, and another around East Timor from August to October 1999, in which the boat tracked the movements of the International Force East Timor as it landed in the region.[23] During May 2005, the submarine was tasked with scouting, infiltrating, and hunting down strategic targets around Ambalat, after Indonesian KRI Tedong Naga [id] and Malaysian KD Rencong were involved in a minor collision near the area.[24][23]

Nanggala underwent a refit at Howaldtswerke that was completed in 1989.[25] Roughly two decades later, the boat underwent a full refit for two years in South Korea by Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) that was completed in January 2012.[26][2][a] The refit cost US$ 63.7 million,[28] replaced much of the submarine's upper structure, and upgraded its weaponry, sonar, radar, combat control and propulsion systems.[29][2] After the refit, Nanggala became capable of firing four torpedoes simultaneously at four different targets and launching anti-ship missiles such as Exocet or Harpoon. Its safe diving depth was increased to 257 metres (843 ft), and its top speed was increased from 21.5 knots (39.8 km/h) to 25 knots (46 km/h).[2] Roughly five years later in November 2016, the submarine was equipped with an ASELSAN KULAÇ echosounder system.[30]

Sinking

Disappearance

On 21 April 2021, Air Chief Marshal Hadi Tjahjanto, Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, reported that Nanggala was believed to have disappeared in waters about 95 km (51 nautical miles) north of Bali.[15][b] Indonesian Navy spokesperson First Admiral Julius Widjojono [id] stated that Nanggala had been conducting a torpedo drill, but failed to report its results as expected.[31][32]

The navy announced in a written statement that Nanggala had requested permission to dive to fire a SUT torpedo[21] at 03:00 WIB (20:00 UTC, 20 April).[33][34] About an hour after being given clearance, the boat lost contact with surface personnel.[33][35]

According to the navy, at around 04:00, Nanggala should have been flooding its torpedo tubes in preparation for the firing of the torpedo. Indonesian military spokesperson Major General Achmad Riad [id] reported that the last communication with Nanggala was at 04:25, when the commanding officer of the training task force would have authorized the firing of torpedo number 8.[36] Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy Yudo Margono reported that Nanggala had fired a live torpedo and a practice torpedo before contact was lost.[34]

The navy subsequently sent a distress call to the International Submarine Escape and Rescue Liaison Office at around 09:37 to report the boat as missing and presumably sunk.[37] The navy stated that it was possible that Nanggala experienced a power outage before falling to a depth of 600–700 m (2,000–2,300 ft).[35] Widjojono stated that Nanggala was able to dive to a depth of 500 m (1,600 ft).[34] The deepest areas of the Bali Sea are over 1,500 m (4,900 ft) below sea level.[38]

At the time it went missing, Nanggala had 53 people on board, including 49 crew members, 1 commander, and 3 weapons specialists.[39] The highest-ranking naval officer in the submarine was Colonel Harry Setyawan, the commander of the submarine unit of the 2nd Fleet Command. Subordinates with him were Lieutenant Colonel Heri Oktavian, the commander of the submarine, and Lieutenant Colonel Irfan Suri, an officer from the Weapons Materials and Electronics Service.[40]

At noon on 22 April, Yudo Margono stated that the oxygen reserves on Nanggala would be sufficient for the entire crew and passengers for three days after it had submerged, noting that the oxygen would run out on Saturday, 24 April, at 03:00 (20:00 UTC, 23 April).[41] Submarine experts stated that submarines have backup systems that may provide sufficient oxygen for some time depending on the state of the equipment.[42] Sources in the Indonesian Navy reported that the underwater telephone (UWT) of the submarine was defective during the drill, hampering communications between the boat and rescue vessels in the area.[43]

A day after Nanggala was declared missing, the Indonesian Navy established a crisis center, equipped with an ambulance and a mobile hyperbaric chamber, at the 2nd Fleet Command [id] headquarters in Surabaya.[44][45] The center was also a source of information for the media and families of the submarine crew members.[45] Indonesian president Joko Widodo stated that the safety of the crew of Nanggala was of top priority, and invited everyone to pray for the crew's safety.[46]

Search

The navy immediately deployed three warships, KRI Diponegoro, KRI Raden Eddy Martadinata, and KRI I Gusti Ngurah Rai, to search for Nanggala.[47] Widjojono stated that a team of divers was searching for the boat.[31] Janes Defence News also reported that the navy had sent a number of other warships to the area.[37] By Thursday, 22 April, the navy had deployed six additional ships to the area: KRI Dr. Soeharso, KRI Hasan Basri, KRI Karel Satsuit Tubun, KRI Singa, KRI Hiu and KRI Layang.[48] Yudo Margono also noted on Thursday that three submarines, five airplanes, and 21 warships had been deployed in the search effort.[34] Submarine KRI Alugoro had also joined the search.[49] KRI Rigel [id], a warship with more powerful sonar equipment, was expected to arrive on 23 April.[50][51] The Indonesian National Police also sent four police ships equipped with remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and sonar devices.[52] KRI Pulau Rimau [id] participated in the search.[53]

The defense ministry initially stated that the governments of Australia, Singapore, and India had responded to their requests for assistance.[54] The Republic of Singapore Navy and Royal Malaysian Navy deployed their submarine rescue vessels, MV Swift Rescue and MV Mega Bakti respectively, to the scene.[55] On 22 April, at approximately 14:15 WIB (07:15 UTC),[56] the Indian Navy announced that their deep-submergence rescue vehicle (DSRV) had departed naval facilities at Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, en route to the search area.[57] U.S. Department of Defense press secretary John Kirby stated that the department was sending airborne assets to assist in the search.[38] The U.S. sent a P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft, which landed Saturday.[58][59] On 23 April, Commander Australian Fleet Rear Admiral Mark Hammond announced that HMAS Ballarat and HMAS Sirius would join the search operation.[60] Other nations, including Germany, France, Russia, Turkey, and Thailand, offered assistance.[61]

Around 07:00 on 21 April, an aerial search revealed traces of an oil spill on the surface of the water near the location where the submarine was believed to have dived.[54][34] Achmad Riad later reported that an oil spill had been observed at multiple locations.[55] He added that Raden Eddy Martadinata had detected movement underwater at a speed of 2.5 knots (4.6 km/h), but was unable to obtain enough information to identify the contact before it disappeared.[55] Yudo Margono also reported on Thursday that an Indonesian naval vessel had detected an object that was magnetic at a depth of 50 to 100 metres (160 to 330 feet).[34][c]

Recovery

The location where Nanggala was found

On 24 April 2021, the Indonesian Navy announced the finding of debris, including a part associated with torpedo tubes, a coolant pipe insulator, a bottle of periscope grease, and prayer rugs.[62][63][64] Because the debris was found within 10 nmi (19 km; 12 mi) of the point of last contact and no other vessels were believed to be in the area, the debris was believed to have come from the submarine, and Nanggala was declared sunk.[64][d] Yudo Margono stated that a sonar scan had shown the submarine at a depth of 850 m (2,800 ft),[65] while its crush depth was presumed to be 500 m (1,600 ft).[64]

On 25 April 2021, after a more accurate sonar and magnetometer scan by Rigel, the Indonesian Navy confirmed that all 53 hands on board were lost.[66][67] Underwater scans identified parts of the submarine, including the rudder, diving plane, anchor, and external parts of the pressure hull, as well as items such as an MK11 submarine escape suit.[68] The ROV from Swift Rescue also made visual contact with the wreck and determined that the submarine had split into three parts.[69] The wreck was found at a depth of 838 m (2,749 ft) at the coordinates 7°48′56″S 114°51′20″E / 7.81556°S 114.85556°E / -7.81556; 114.85556Coordinates: 7°48′56″S 114°51′20″E / 7.81556°S 114.85556°E / -7.81556; 114.85556, roughly 1,400 m (1,500 yd) from where Nanggala had dived.[70][71]

Analysis

Cause

The navy stated that Nanggala may have experienced a power outage.[35] After the finding of debris from Nanggala, Yudo Margono stated that the submarine may have cracked instead of exploded, as an explosion would have been detected by sonar.[72]

Indonesian People's Representative Council member and retired major general of the Indonesian Army Tubagus Hasanuddin suspected that the refit, performed by a South Korean firm in 2012, may not have been performed properly. He stated that after the refit, the submarine had failed a torpedo firing test, which resulted in three deaths. Hasanuddin also stated that Nanggala had exceeded its design capacity of 38 with 53 people on board when it sank. Yudo Margono said the boat was combat ready, had received a letter of acceptance, and had a history of successful firing exercises.[73]

Hankook Ilbo reported that submarines must undergo maintenance at least every six years, and that a DSME official had stated that they had not been involved with the submarine since the 2012 refit.[74][75]

Modernization

Parliamentarian Utut Adianto stated that Indonesia's defences required modernization,[76] while military analyst Connie Rahakundini Bakrie [id] shared similar concerns.[77] Frans Wuwung, former head of the engine room of Nanggala, stated that despite the submarine's age, its equipment was still in good condition due to proper maintenance, and did not consider such a modernization necessary.[78]

Aftermath

After the navy declared Nanggala lost with all hands, the People's Consultative Assembly recommended a posthumous promotion for all personnel on board.[79] Hadi Tjahjanto stated that he would propose the promotions to Joko Widodo.[80] A day later, on 26 April, Joko Widodo announced that the government would award a posthumous promotion and confer posthumously the Bintang Jalasena 'Navy Meritorious Service Star' to everyone on board Nanggala.[81]

Tubagus Hasanuddin recommended that the Indonesian Navy's remaining Cakra-class submarine be taken out of service.[73]

Reactions

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia Abdullah of Pahang,[82] Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison,[83] the Korean Ministry of Defense,[84] Singapore Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen and Senior Minister Teo Chee Hean,[85] the UK's foreign minister, Nigel Adams, and ambassador to Indonesia, Owen Jenkins, all sent condolences.[86] United States Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin expressed his "heartfelt concern" in a call with Indonesia's defense minister Prabowo Subianto.[87]

During the search, use of the hashtag #PrayForKRINanggala402 and #KRINanggala402 became popular on Twitter.[88][89] After Nanggala had been declared sunk, the phrases "On Eternal Patrol" and "Rest In Peace", and the motto Wira Ananta Rudira 'Steadfast to the End', used by the submarine unit to which Nanggala belonged, saw increased usage.[90][91][92]

Commanders

Lt. Col Heri Oktavian (left) and Colonel Harry Setyawan, commanders aboard Nanggala when it sank in 2021
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel (Commander) Armand Aksyah (6 July 1981–?)[93]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Antonius Soebiyarto[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Djoko Poernomo[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Sardjun Nurkamal[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Marisi Panggabean[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Slamet Soebandi[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Didi Setiadi[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Sulaiman Banjarnahor[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Rudwin Thalib[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Dedy Yulianto
  • Sea Major Tunggul Suropati[94]
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Muhammad Ali [id] (2004–2006[95])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Jefry Sangel[94]
  • Sea Major Purwanto[94]
  • Sea Major Wirawan Ady Prasetya [id] (2013 – 16 May 2014[96])
  • Sea Major Harry Setyawan (16 May 2014[96] – 8 December 2015[97])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Widya Poerwandanu (8 December 2015[97] – 29 September 2016[98])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Ahmad Noer Taufik (29 September 2016[98] – 2 December 2016[99])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Yulius Azz Zaenal (2 December 2016[99] – 20 February 2019[100])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Ansori (20 February 2019[100] – 3 April 2020[101])
  • Sea Lieutenant Colonel Heri Oktavian (3 April 2020[101] – 24 April 2021) (sunk)[63]

Notable former crew members

Command structure

KRI Nanggala command structure[104]
Grey background indicates those who were indirectly in charge, while bold indicates those who were onboard
Admiral
Yudo Margono
Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy
Rear admiral
I Nyoman Gede Sudihartawan
Commander of the 2nd Fleet
Sea colonel
Harry Setyawan
Commander of the 2nd Fleet Submarine Unit
Sea Lieutenant Colonel
Heri Oktavian
Commander of KRI Nanggala
Sea Major
Eko Firmanto
Chief of Staff of KRI Nanggala
Sea Major
Wisnu Subiyantoro
Head of Machine Department
of KRI Nanggala
Captain
Yohanes Heri
Head of Electronic Weaponry Department
of KRI Nanggala
Captain
I Gede Kartika
Head of Operations Department
of KRI Nanggala
2nd Lt. Rhesa Tri, Head of Large Machine Division
2nd Lt. Anang Sutriasno, Head of Electricity Division
1st Lt. Ady Sonata, Head of Weapons
Control Division
2nd Lt. Adhi Laksmono, Head of Electronics Division

1st Lt. Muhadi, Head of Communications Division

1st Lt. Imam Adi, Head of Combat Control Center Division

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nanggala did not return to operations until February 2012.[27]
  2. ^ The area is around 300 km (160 nautical miles) to the east of the large East Java city of Surabaya.
  3. ^ It is unclear if Achmad Riad and Yudo Margono were referring to the same object.
  4. ^ In addition, Korean writing was found on some of the debris, and Nanggala had been refitted in South Korea in 2012.[63]

References

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