|Born||Charles Oliveira da Silva|
October 17, 1989
Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil
|Other names||Do Bronx, Brazilian Tony|
|Height||5 ft 10 in (178 cm)|
|Weight||156 lb (71 kg; 11 st 2 lb)|
Lightweight (2008–2011), (2017–present)
|Reach||74 in (188 cm)|
|Fighting out of||São Paulo, Brazil|
|Team||Chute Boxe Diego Lima (2018–present) |
Macaco Gold Team (2008–2018)
|Trainer||Diego Lima and Jorge Patino|
|Rank||3rd degree black belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu under Ericson Cardoso and Jorge "Macaco" Patino|
|Mixed martial arts record|
|Mixed martial arts record from Sherdog|
Charles Oliveira da Silva (born October 17, 1989) is a Brazilian professional mixed martial artist and Brazilian jiu-jitsu practitioner. He currently competes in the Lightweight division for the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), where he is a former UFC Lightweight Champion. Oliveira holds multiple UFC records, notably the most submission wins in the organization's history at 16, and most finishes at 19. As of May 9, 2022, he is #4 in the UFC men's pound-for-pound rankings and #1 in the UFC lightweight rankings.
Oliveira was born in a poor family in the favela of Vicente de Carvalho in the tourist town Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Charles started playing football, dreaming in becoming a professional player, but at age 7 he started to feel ill, he had regular pains in his body and had problems in walking, and in some cases he couldn't move his legs. He was diagnosed with rheumatic fever and heart murmur, which severely affected his ankle, the medic told his family that he could become paraplegic. Despite all the challenges, Oliveira was introduced to Brazilian jiu-jitsu by a neighbour named "Paulo", while his family had very low income, the BJJ gym's coach offered classes for free as part of a social program. His family helped fund his training by selling street snacks and discarded cardboard. "Paulo", the man who introduced Charles to jiu-jitsu, later died caught in the crossfire of a shootout in Vicente de Carvalho when Charles was 14.
Charles Oliveira began training in Brazilian jiu-jitsu under Roger Coelho at the age of 12, winning his first major title as a white belt in 2003. He was awarded his black belt in Brazilian jiu-jitsu under Ericson Cardoso and Jorge "Macaco" Patino in 2010.
His nickname "do Bronx" comes from the Bronx borough of New York City, literally meaning "from the Bronx", as "Bronx" was a slang used for favelas and poor neighbourhoods. In an interview he revealed: "Bronx is because it's a favela, right? Outskirts, where I come from. "Do Bronx" practically came when I went to fight in a [amateur] tournament. [...] And they told me to get them a nickname, I was just Charles Oliveira. When we went to fight some jiu-jitsu championships, they always said 'look at the guys from the Bronx, from the favela'. So I put "do Bronx" in".
Oliveira began his career in 2007 in his home country of Brazil, compiling a record of 12–0, with six knockouts and five submissions. On three separate occasions, Oliveira has compiled multiple wins on the same night.
His first bout was the in the amateur MMA event Circuito Nacional de Vale-Tudo Amador ("National Amateur Vale-Tudo Circuit") against Rui Machado, Oliveira submitted him with an armbar 15 seconds into the first round.
In March 2008, Oliveira made his professional debut at the Predador Fight Championship promotion, where his master Jorge Patino had previously participated at Predator FC 6. The event was the "Predator FC 9 - Welterweight Grand Prix", a one-night single-elimination tournament similar to the "Grand Prix" events held by Pride FC, where the competitors would have to fight three times in order to be crowned the champion. In the first round, Oliveira defeated Jackson Pontes via submission (rear-naked choke) which advanced him to the second stage of the tournament. Oliveira's second stage fight was against Viscardi Andrade. In the second round of the fight, Oliveira won via TKO (punches) and advanced to the final round of the tournament. Oliveira won the tournament by defeating Diego Braga via TKO (punches) in the first round of the fight.
Oliveira debuted at lightweight by defeating future UFC fighter Mehdi Baghdad in December 2008 at the first event of promotion "Kawai Arena". After that he entered into another tournament at "Korea Fight", where he defeated Daniel Fernandes and Eliene Silva via KO and TKO, respectively.
Oliveira submitted three opponents in a row over the next few months (including Bellator veteran Alexandre Bezerra), and won a split decision over Eduardo Pachu.
Oliveira once again competed twice in one night, in February 2010, defeating Rosenildo Rocha via submission (rear-naked choke) in the first round and Diego Bataglia via KO (slam).
In January 2010, Oliveira was named as the third-best Brazilian prospect to watch in 2010, according to Sherdog.
Oliveira then signed for the UFC and made his debut against Darren Elkins. This fight was originally scheduled for The Ultimate Fighter: Team Liddell vs. Team Ortiz Finale, but was rescheduled for UFC Live: Jones vs. Matyushenko due to visa issues. Oliveira defeated Elkins via submission (armbar) after 41 seconds of the first round. Oliveira was taken down early by Elkins but quickly attempted a triangle choke, before transitioning to an armbar, forcing the tap out. The submission earned him the Submission of the Night award.
Oliveira next fought against Efrain Escudero at UFC Fight Night 22 replacing an injured Matt Wiman. The bout, which served as co-main event would become a catchweight bout after Escudero weighed in at 159 lb. Oliveira went on to defeat Escudero in the third round via standing rear-naked choke. Oliveira was awarded the Submission of the Night award for his second successive UFC appearance.
Oliveira faced Jim Miller on December 11, 2010 at UFC 124. Oliveira was quickly submitted via kneebar in the first round; this marked the first loss of his career.
Oliveira faced Nik Lentz on June 26, 2011 at UFC Live: Kongo vs. Barry. The fight ended in the second round after Oliveira hit Lentz with an illegal knee which went unnoticed by the referee and submitted the dazed Lentz via rear-naked choke. However, after reviewing the incident, the Pennsylvania State Athletic Commission overturned the result and declared it a no contest. The back and forth action earned both fighters Fight of the Night honors.
Oliveira was expected to face Joe Lauzon on November 19, 2011 at UFC 138. However, Oliveira instead faced Donald Cerrone on August 14, 2011 at UFC on Versus 5, replacing an injured Paul Taylor. He lost the fight via TKO (punches) at 3:01 of the first round. His trainer stated that after going 0–2–1 NC in his last 3 fights he planned to drop down to the featherweight division.
Oliveira was briefly linked to a bout with Robert Peralta on January 20, 2012 at UFC on FX: Guillard vs. Miller, but instead faced promotional newcomer Eric Wisely in a featherweight fight on January 28, 2012 at UFC on Fox: Evans vs. Davis. Oliveira won the fight via reverse calf slicer submission in the first round. Oliveira faced Jonathan Brookins on June 1, 2012 at The Ultimate Fighter 15 Finale. Oliveira used his speed to outstrike Brookins and won the fight via second round anaconda choke.
Oliveira faced Cub Swanson on September 22, 2012 at UFC 152. Early in the first round, Swanson hit Oliveira with body shots, which visibly appeared to hurt Oliveira. Swanson followed it up with an overhand right, sending Oliveira to the canvas and resulting in a KO.
Oliveira faced Frankie Edgar on July 6, 2013 at UFC 162, he lost via unanimous decision. Both fighters earned Fight of the Night honors for their performance.
Oliveira was expected to face Estevan Payan on October 19, 2013 at UFC 166. However, Payan was forced out of the bout citing a broken foot and was replaced by Jeremy Larsen. Subsequently, on October 5, Oliveira pulled out of the Larsen bout citing a strained thigh muscle.
Oliveira faced Andy Ogle on February 15, 2014 at UFC Fight Night 36. He won the fight via triangle choke submission in the third round. The win also earned him one of the first UFC Performance of the Night bonus awards.
Oliveira faced Hatsu Hioki on June 28, 2014 at UFC Fight Night 43. He won the fight via submission and became the first man to finish Hioki.
Oliveira was expected to face Nik Lentz in a rematch on September 5, 2014, at UFC Fight Night 50. At the event weigh-in, Oliveira came in over the 146 pound featherweight limit at 150 pounds. Subsequently, he was initially forced to surrender 20 percent of his purse to his opponent Nik Lentz and the bout was changed to a catchweight affair. In turn, Oliveira was pulled from the event entirely on the day of the event after he fell ill from the effects of the weight cutting process.
Oliveira faced Jeremy Stephens on December 12, 2014 at The Ultimate Fighter 20 Finale. He won the fight via unanimous decision.
Oliveira finally faced Nik Lentz in a rematch on May 30, 2015 at UFC Fight Night 67. Following a back and forth first two rounds, Oliveria won the fight via guillotine choke submission in the third round. The win earned Oliveria his third Performance of the Night bonus and his third Fight of the Night bonus.
Oliveira faced Max Holloway on August 23, 2015 at UFC Fight Night 74. He lost the fight via TKO in the first round, after suffering an apparent neck/shoulder injury while attempting a takedown, and was rendered unable to continue. The injury was later described as a micro-tear in his esophagus, although Oliveira was released from a Saskatoon hospital the next day, and tested negative for major chest, neck and/or throat injuries. He later confirmed that he suffered a minor neck injury, related to a previous injury from his training camp. He did not require surgery.
Oliveira faced Myles Jury on December 19, 2015 at UFC on Fox 17. In the lead up to the fight Oliveira missed weight - his third time in his UFC career - for the bout and it was subsequently contested at a catchweight. Oliveira won the fight via submission in the first round.
Oliveira next faced Anthony Pettis on August 27, 2016 at UFC on Fox 21. After a grueling back-and-forth battle, Pettis submitted Oliveira in the third round via guillotine choke.
Oliveira faced Ricardo Lamas on November 5, 2016 at The Ultimate Fighter Latin America 3 Finale. The bout was contested at a catchweight of 155 lbs, as Oliveira missed weight by nearly 10 lbs. Lamas won the fight via submission in the second round.
Oliveira faced Will Brooks in a lightweight bout on April 8, 2017 at UFC 210. He won the fight by rear-naked choke submission in the first round. He was awarded a Performance of the Night bonus.
Oliveira faced Paul Felder on December 2, 2017 at UFC 218. He lost the fight via TKO in the second round after Felder landed multiple elbows while in Oliveira's guard.
In 2018 joined Chute Boxe Diego Lima in São Paulo, According to him, his former gym Macaco Gold Team (headed by Jorge "Macaco" Patino) was mostly focused BJJ with complementary striking, while he was confident with his groundfighting skills, he felt he needed to improve his striking game. Patino is still his BJJ coach but now he is complemented with Chute Boxe's trademark aggressive Muay Thai style.
Oliveira faced Clay Guida at UFC 225, replacing an injured Bobby Green. He won the fight via guillotine choke submission in the first round. The win earned him his fifth Performance of the Night bonus.
Oliveira faced returning veteran Christos Giagos on September 22, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 137. He won the fight via submission in the second round. With this win, Oliveira passed Royce Gracie for the most submission wins (11) in UFC history. This win earned him the Performance of the Night award.
Oliveira faced Jim Miller in a rematch on December 15, 2018 at UFC on Fox 31. He won the fight via a rear-naked choke submission early in the first round. The win earned him a 7th Performance of the Night award (setting a new record), and extended the record for most submissions in UFC History with 12.
Oliveira faced David Teymur on February 2, 2019 at UFC Fight Night 144. He won the fight in the second round after stunning Teymur with an upward elbow and punches before applying an anaconda choke. With this win, Oliveira extended the UFC record for most submission wins to thirteen. This win earned him the Performance of the Night award.
As the first fight of his new, five-fight contract, a trilogy fight with Nik Lentz took place on May 18, 2019 at UFC Fight Night 152. Oliveira won the fight via TKO in the second round.
Replacing Leonardo Santos, Oliveira then faced Jared Gordon on November 16, 2019 at UFC Fight Night 164. Oliveira won the fight by knockout in the first round. This win earned him the Performance of the Night award.
Oliveira faced Kevin Lee on March 14, 2020 as the main event at UFC Fight Night 170. At the weigh-ins, Lee weighed in at 158.5 lbs, 2.5 lbs over the lightweight non-title fight limit of 156 pounds. Lee was fined 20% of his purse and his bout with Oliveira was expected to proceed as scheduled at a catchweight. Oliveira won the fight via submission with a guillotine choke in the third round. This win earned him the Performance of the Night award. With this win, Oliveira also extended the UFC record for most submission wins to 14, moved to second place in terms of bonuses received with 16, and extended his finishing streak to 7, which marks the longest active finishing streak for now and ties with Donald Cerone with most finishes in the UFC.
Oliveira was scheduled to meet Beneil Dariush on October 4, 2020 at UFC on ESPN: Holm vs. Aldana However, Oliveira pulled out of the fight in early September for undisclosed reasons.
Oliveira faced Tony Ferguson on December 12, 2020 at UFC 256 in the co-main event. In the first round, Charles caught Ferguson in an arm-bar, even with a lot of pressure Ferguson refused to tap out and almost got his arm broken by Oliveira until he was saved by the end of the round. After a dominant three rounds, Charles Oliveira won the fight via unanimous decision. It was his first victory by decision since his fight against Jeremy Stephens in 2014. This win earned him his eleventh Performance of the Night award.
Oliveira faced former three–time Bellator Lightweight Champion Michael Chandler for the vacant UFC Lightweight Championship, following previous champion Khabib Nurmagomedov's retirement, while headlining UFC 262 on May 15, 2021. Despite being dropped by Chandler in the first round, Oliveira won the fight via technical knockout early in the second round to claim the UFC Lightweight Championship. With the knockout win, he broke yet another record, recording the most finishes in UFC history. This win also earned Oliveira the Performance of the Night bonus award.
Oliveira made his first title defense against former UFC Interim Lightweight champion Dustin Poirier on December 11, 2021 at UFC 269. After being knocked down in the first round, Oliveira won the bout by submitting Poirier by standing rear-naked choke in the first minute of the third round. The win also earned Oliveira his twelfth Performance of the Night bonus award, a new record for the company.
Oliveira was set to make his second title defense against another former UFC Interim Lightweight champion, Justin Gaethje, on May 7, at UFC 274. At the weigh-ins, Oliveira weighed in at 155.5 pounds, half a pound over the divisional title limit. As a result, upon commencement of the fight, Oliveira was officially stripped of the championship, and only Gaethje was eligible to win the title. This was the first time in UFC history that a title was vacated due to a weight miss. After being knocked down, Oliveira dropped Gaethje with a right hand and rallied to win the fight via rear-naked choke submission in the first round, and was declared the number one contender to the UFC Lightweight Championship. The win also earned him the third place Crypto.com "Fan Bonus of the Night" award.
Charles Oliveira won his first Brazilian jiu-jitsu tournament in 2003 as a white belt, São Paulo State Championship in the Junior Division. In 2004 he won the São Paulo championship again, the Copa Nação Jiu-Jitsu in 2005 and in 2006 he won on 16 medals. By 2007 he started to steer his career to focus on MMA.
In January 2020 he fought a grappling superfight at the MMA event SFT 20 against Lucas Barros from Demian Maia Jiu-Jitsu. Oliveira and Barros fought with a jiu-jitsu gi in a cage under IBJJF rules. Charles won by decision.
Charles and his wife have a daughter, Tayla (born 2017). He has his residence in Guarujá, living near his old neighbourhood of Vicente de Carvalho, and helps his neighbourhood with regular charities. He is a Christian.
Kanō Jigorō → Mitsuyo Maeda → Carlos Gracie → Hélio Gracie → Rickson Gracie → Marcelo Behring → Waldomiro Perez → Jorge Patino → Charles Oliveira
|Professional record breakdown|
|42 matches||33 wins||8 losses|
|Win||33–8 (1)||Justin Gaethje||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC 274||May 7, 2022||1||3:22||Phoenix, Arizona, United States||Oliveira missed weight (155.5 lb) and was stripped of the UFC Lightweight Championship. Only Gaethje was eligible to win the title. Extended the UFC record for most submission wins (16) and most finishes (19).|
|Win||32–8 (1)||Dustin Poirier||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC 269||December 11, 2021||3||1:02||Las Vegas, Nevada, United States||Defended the UFC Lightweight Championship. Performance of the Night.|
|Win||31–8 (1)||Michael Chandler||TKO (punches)||UFC 262||May 15, 2021||2||0:19||Houston, Texas, United States||Won the vacant UFC Lightweight Championship. Broke the UFC record for most finishes (17). Performance of the Night.|
|Win||30–8 (1)||Tony Ferguson||Decision (unanimous)||UFC 256||December 12, 2020||3||5:00||Las Vegas, Nevada, United States|
|Win||29–8 (1)||Kevin Lee||Submission (guillotine choke)||UFC Fight Night: Lee vs. Oliveira||March 14, 2020||3||0:28||Brasília, Brazil||Catchweight (158.5 lb) bout; Lee missed weight. Performance of the Night.|
|Win||28–8 (1)||Jared Gordon||KO (punches)||UFC Fight Night: Błachowicz vs. Jacaré||November 16, 2019||1||1:26||São Paulo, Brazil||Performance of the Night.|
|Win||27–8 (1)||Nik Lentz||TKO (punches)||UFC Fight Night: dos Anjos vs. Lee||May 18, 2019||2||2:11||Rochester, New York, United States|
|Win||26–8 (1)||David Teymur||Submission (anaconda choke)||UFC Fight Night: Assunção vs. Moraes 2||February 2, 2019||2||0:55||Fortaleza, Brazil||Performance of the Night.|
|Win||25–8 (1)||Jim Miller||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC on Fox: Lee vs. Iaquinta 2||December 15, 2018||1||1:15||Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States||Performance of the Night.|
|Win||24–8 (1)||Christos Giagos||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC Fight Night: Santos vs. Anders||September 22, 2018||2||3:22||São Paulo, Brazil||Broke the UFC record for most submission wins (11). Performance of the Night.|
|Win||23–8 (1)||Clay Guida||Submission (guillotine choke)||UFC 225||June 9, 2018||1||2:18||Chicago, Illinois, United States||Performance of the Night.|
|Loss||22–8 (1)||Paul Felder||TKO (elbows)||UFC 218||December 2, 2017||2||4:06||Detroit, Michigan, United States|
|Win||22–7 (1)||Will Brooks||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC 210||April 8, 2017||1||2:30||Buffalo, New York, United States||Return to Lightweight. Performance of the Night.|
|Loss||21–7 (1)||Ricardo Lamas||Submission (guillotine choke)||The Ultimate Fighter Latin America 3 Finale: dos Anjos vs. Ferguson||November 5, 2016||2||2:13||Mexico City, Mexico||Catchweight (155 lb) bout; Oliveira missed weight.|
|Loss||21–6 (1)||Anthony Pettis||Submission (guillotine choke)||UFC on Fox: Maia vs. Condit||August 27, 2016||3||1:49||Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada|
|Win||21–5 (1)||Myles Jury||Submission (guillotine choke)||UFC on Fox: dos Anjos vs. Cowboy 2||December 19, 2015||1||3:05||Orlando, Florida, United States||Catchweight (150.5 lb) bout; Oliveira missed weight.|
|Loss||20–5 (1)||Max Holloway||TKO (esophagus injury)||UFC Fight Night: Holloway vs. Oliveira||August 23, 2015||1||1:39||Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada|
|Win||20–4 (1)||Nik Lentz||Submission (guillotine choke)||UFC Fight Night: Condit vs. Alves||May 30, 2015||3||1:10||Goiânia, Brazil||Performance of the Night. Fight of the Night.|
|Win||19–4 (1)||Jeremy Stephens||Decision (unanimous)||The Ultimate Fighter: A Champion Will Be Crowned Finale||December 12, 2014||3||5:00||Las Vegas, Nevada, United States||Catchweight (146.5 lb) bout; Oliveira missed weight.|
|Win||18–4 (1)||Hatsu Hioki||Submission (anaconda choke)||UFC Fight Night: Te Huna vs. Marquardt||June 28, 2014||2||4:28||Auckland, New Zealand||Performance of the Night.|
|Win||17–4 (1)||Andy Ogle||Submission (triangle choke)||UFC Fight Night: Machida vs. Mousasi||February 15, 2014||3||2:40||Jaraguá do Sul, Brazil||Performance of the Night.|
|Loss||16–4 (1)||Frankie Edgar||Decision (unanimous)||UFC 162||July 6, 2013||3||5:00||Las Vegas, Nevada, United States||Fight of the Night.|
|Loss||16–3 (1)||Cub Swanson||KO (punch)||UFC 152||September 22, 2012||1||2:40||Toronto, Ontario, Canada||Catchweight (146.2 lb) bout; Oliveira missed weight.|
|Win||16–2 (1)||Jonathan Brookins||Submission (guillotine choke)||The Ultimate Fighter: Live Finale||June 1, 2012||2||2:42||Las Vegas, Nevada, United States|
|Win||15–2 (1)||Eric Wisely||Submission (calf slicer)||UFC on Fox: Evans vs. Davis||January 28, 2012||1||1:43||Chicago, Illinois, United States||Featherweight debut. Submission of the Night.|
|Loss||14–2 (1)||Donald Cerrone||TKO (punches)||UFC Live: Hardy vs. Lytle||August 14, 2011||1||3:01||Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States|
|NC||14–1 (1)||Nik Lentz||NC (illegal knee)||UFC Live: Kongo vs. Barry||June 26, 2011||2||1:48||Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States||Originally a submission (rear-naked choke) win for Oliveira; overturned due to an illegal knee. Fight of the Night.|
|Loss||14–1||Jim Miller||Submission (kneebar)||UFC 124||December 11, 2010||1||1:59||Montreal, Quebec, Canada|
|Win||14–0||Efrain Escudero||Submission (rear-naked choke)||UFC Fight Night: Marquardt vs. Palhares||September 15, 2010||3||2:25||Austin, Texas, United States||Catchweight (159 lb) bout; Escudero missed weight. Submission of the Night.|
|Win||13–0||Darren Elkins||Submission (armbar)||UFC Live: Jones vs. Matyushenko||August 1, 2010||1||0:41||San Diego, California, United States||Submission of the Night.|
|Win||12–0||Diego Battaglia||KO (slam)||Warriors Challenge 5||February 14, 2010||1||N/A||Porto Belo, Brazil|
|Win||11–0||Rosenildo Rocha||Submission (rear-naked choke)||1||1:21|
|Win||10–0||Eduardo Pachu||Decision (split)||Eagle Fighting Championship||September 26, 2009||3||5:00||São Paulo, Brazil|
|Win||9–0||Alexandre Bezerra||Submission (anaconda choke)||First Class Fight 3||September 18, 2009||2||1:11||São Paulo, Brazil|
|Win||8–0||Dom Stanco||Submission (rear-naked choke)||Ring of Combat 24||April 17, 2009||1||3:33||Atlantic City, New Jersey, United States|
|Win||7–0||Carlos Soares||Submission (triangle armbar)||Jungle Fight 12: Warriors 2||March 21, 2009||1||2:48||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Win||6–0||Elieni Silva||TKO (knee and punches)||Korea Fight 1||December 29, 2008||2||N/A||São Paulo, Brazil|
|Win||4–0||Mehdi Baghdad||TKO (punches)||Kawai Arena 1||December 13, 2008||1||1:01||São Paulo, Brazil||Lightweight debut.|
|Win||3–0||Diego Braga||TKO (punches)||Predador FC 9: Welterweight Grand Prix||March 15, 2008||1||2:30||São Paulo, Brazil||Won the PFC Welterweight Grand Prix Tournament.|
|Win||2–0||Viscardi Andrade||TKO (punches)||2||2:47||PFC Welterweight Grand Prix Semifinal.|
|Win||1–0||Jackson Pontes||Submission (rear-naked choke)||1||2:11||PFC Welterweight Grand Prix Quarterfinal.|
|Amateur record breakdown|
|1 match||1 win||0 losses|
|Win||1–0||Rui Machado||Submission (armbar)||Circuito Nacional de Vale-Tudo Amador||November 3, 2007||1||0:15||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|1.||UFC 262||Oliveira vs. Chandler||15 May 2021||Toyota Center||Houston, Texas,U.S||300,000|
|2.||UFC 269||Oliveira vs. Poirier||11 December 2021||T-Mobile Arena||Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S||500,000|
|3.||UFC 274||Oliveira vs. Gaethje||7 May 2022||Footprint Center||Phoenix, Arizona, U.S||400,000|
Presented content of the Wikipedia article was extracted in 2022-05-13 based on https://en.wikipedia.org/?curid=27167974