Hurricane Laura

Hurricane Laura
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Laura 2020-08-26 2300Z.png
Hurricane Laura near peak intensity while nearing southwestern Louisiana on August 26
FormedAugust 20, 2020
DissipatedAugust 29, 2020
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 150 mph (240 km/h)
Lowest pressure937 mbar (hPa); 27.67 inHg
Fatalities67 total
Damage≥ $8.9 billion (2020 USD)
Areas affectedLesser Antilles, Greater Antilles, The Bahamas, Gulf Coast of the United States, Midwestern United States, Eastern United States
Part of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Laura was a deadly and damaging Category 4 Atlantic hurricane that tied the 1856 Last Island hurricane as the strongest hurricane on record to make landfall in the U.S. state of Louisiana, as measured by maximum sustained winds. The twelfth named storm, fourth hurricane, and first major hurricane of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, Laura originated from a large tropical wave that moved off the West African coast on August 16 and became a tropical depression on August 20. Laura intensified into a tropical storm a day later, becoming the earliest twelfth named storm on record in the North Atlantic basin, forming eight days earlier than 1995's Hurricane Luis.

Laura first hit the Lesser Antilles and brushed Puerto Rico as a tropical storm, then moved across the island of Hispaniola, killing 31 people in Haiti and four in the Dominican Republic. The storm then moved across the length of Cuba, prompting tropical storm warnings and the evacuation of more than 260,000 people there. Subsequently, the outer rainbands extended into the Florida Keys and South Florida. Laura then moved across the Gulf of Mexico, strengthening slowly at first, before a period of rapid intensification on August 26. That day, Laura became a major hurricane, and later attained peak 1-minute sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h), making it a strong Category 4 hurricane.

Early on August 27, Laura made landfall near peak intensity on Cameron, Louisiana. This was the tenth-strongest U.S. hurricane landfall by windspeed on record. The storm caused the deaths of at least 32 people in the U.S. and inflicted an estimated $8.7 billion in insured damage on southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas near the Gulf of Mexico.[1] After landfall, Laura rapidly weakened as it moved inland, becoming a tropical storm later that day, and weakening further to a tropical depression on the next day. On August 29, Laura degenerated into a remnant low, before being absorbed into another extratropical storm near the East Coast of the U.S. shortly afterward. Overall, Laura caused more than $8.9 billion in damage and 67 deaths.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 16, 2020, a westward-moving tropical wave along the eastern end of a monsoon trough emerged off the west coast of Africa over the Atlantic Ocean.[2] At this time, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted the possibility of tropical cyclogenesis over the next five days as environmental conditions gradually became more favorable for development.[3] The system produced disorganized convection over a broad area,[4] and steadily consolidated. A surface low accompanied by organizing banding features coalesced about 700 mi (1,120 km) west-southwest of the Cape Verde islands.[5] By 03:00 UTC on August 20, the low and accompanying convection became sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression, the thirteenth of the season.[6] Situated 1,035 mi (1,670 km) east-southeast of the Leeward Islands,[7] the depression moved briskly west-northwest in response to a subtropical ridge to the north, a motion it maintained for several days.[6] Environmental conditions featured mixed signals for intensification, including low wind shear and dry air from the Saharan Air Layer. Accordingly forecast models displayed solutions ranging from the system degrading back into a tropical wave all the way to becoming a major hurricane within the next five days.[8]

Initial aircraft reconnaissance into the system late on August 20 into August 21 revealed a poorly organized system with an ill-defined, elongated surface low.[9] Furthermore, the system's mid-level circulation was displaced several hundred miles southeast of the assumed surface circulation. Throughout the early part of August 21, the depression may have degenerated into a tropical wave.[10] Regardless of its structure in the morning, aircraft observations around 13:00 UTC revealed increased organization and the presence of tropical storm-force winds. Accordingly, the NHC upgraded the system to Tropical Storm Laura.[11][12] This marked the earliest classification of a season's twelfth named storm since reliable records began in 1851, surpassing the previous record set by Hurricane Luis August 28, 1995.[13] Moderate wind shear hampered further development through August 22, displacing the bulk of convection east of the surface circulation.[14] Early on August 22, Laura traversed the Virgin Islands and sideswiped Puerto Rico to the south.[15] During the afternoon, a strong mesocyclone within the storm's broader circulation impacted Puerto Rico; sustained winds associated with this feature reached 60 mph (97 km/h) in Las Marías.[16]

Tropical Storm Laura over Cuba as seen from International Space Station

Early on August 23, Tropical Storm Laura made landfall in the southeastern Dominican Republic with maximum sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[17] Despite interaction with the mountainous terrain of Hispaniola, normally an impediment to tropical cyclone organization, the overall structure of Laura improved with expanding upper-level outflow and intense convection over the Barahona Peninsula.[18] Laura subsequently traversed Haiti and emerged over the Windward Passage.[19] Once back over water, the storm intensified and deep convection blossomed over the southern portion of its circulation.[20] Around 00:00 UTC on August 24, Laura made a brief landfall in Santiago de Cuba Province, Cuba, with winds of 60–65 mph (95–100 km/h) before emerging over the Caribbean Sea along Cuba's southern coast.[21][22] Laura's structure degraded and struggled to organize throughout August 24 due to a combination of northerly wind shear, interaction with Cuba, and the lack of a defined inner-core. Accompanying convection was most intense in a prominent band south of the circulation center.[23][24] Early on August 25, Laura traversed Pinar del Río Province in western Cuba and entered the southeastern Gulf of Mexico.[25]

Maintaining a west-northwest trajectory, Laura quickly organized throughout August 25 owing to favorable environmental conditions. A central dense overcast soon developed and Laura achieved hurricane-strength by 12:15 UTC.[26][27] Following a brief disruption from dry air,[28] the hurricane began a period of rapid intensification on August 26.[29] The storm grew in size and featured a defined eye surrounded by increasingly symmetric deep convection.[30] By 12:00 UTC, Laura strengthened into a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale.[31] The hurricane's eye reached a diameter of 30 mi (45 km) that evening and aircraft reconnaissance indicated it to have acquired sustained winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) by 21:00 UTC; this represented an increase of 65 mph (100 km/h) over a 24-hour period.[32] Slight strengthening into August 27 culminated with Laura reaching its peak intensity of 150 mph (240 km/h), a high-end Category 4 hurricane, and a minimum pressure of 937 mbar (hPa; 27.67 inHg).[33] At this time, the hurricane turned north toward the Texas-Louisiana coastline within a weakness along the western edge of a subtropical ridge.[34]

Animated loop of Laura making landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, early on August 27 from the Lake Charles (KLCH) radar, before it failed at 12:53 a.m CDT (05:53 UTC)

Hurricane Laura made landfall near Cameron, Louisiana, around 06:00 UTC on August 27 near peak strength as its pressure had risen by 1 mbar. Forecasters at the NHC described the system as "a ferocious looking hurricane with a clear circular eye, an intense eyewall, and tightly-coiled surrounding spiral bands."[35] Laura matched the strength of the 1856 Last Island hurricane for strongest landfall in the state and was the first Category 4 landfall on record in southwestern Louisiana.[36] Progressing inland across southwestern Louisiana, Laura produced destructive winds over a wide area. Sustained winds at the Lake Charles Regional Airport reached 95 mph (153 km/h) with gusts up to 132 mph (212 km/h).[37] Steadily filling of the storm and disappearance of its eye ensued throughout the day,[38] and Laura weakened to a tropical storm by 17:00 UTC about 50 mi (85 km) east-southeast of Shreveport.[39] Maintaining tropical storm-force winds, the system progressed into southwestern Arkansas; wind gusts in the state reached nearly 60 mph (95 km/h).[40] By August 28, Laura degraded to a tropical depression over central Arkansas;[41] heavy rain became the primary threat across the Southeast. Around that time, the NHC issued their final advisory on Laura, passing on the responsibility for issuing advisories to the Weather Prediction Center (WPC).[42] Gradually losing tropical characteristics, the weakening storm accelerated east-northeast within the mid-latitude westerlies.[41][43] The system ultimately degenerated into a remnant low over Kentucky early on August 29, as it began merging with an approaching extratropical storm.[44] Laura's remnant low continued moving eastward, before being absorbed into the approaching extratropical system several hours later, over Maryland.[45][46]

Preparations

Hurricane Marco (left) and Tropical Storm Laura (right) on August 23.

Tropical Storm Watches and Warnings were issued for almost all of the Greater Antilles.[47]

Lesser Antilles and Virgin Islands

In preparation for the storm, schools were closed in Anguilla and Antigua.[48] A tropical storm watch was issued for several islands in the group on August 20, being upgraded to a warning the next day.[49][50] The storm prompted the closing of all ports in the British Virgin Islands.[51]

Dominican Republic

A tropical storm warning from Punta Palenque to the northern Haitian border. A red alert was also issued for 18 provinces, a yellow alert for 8, and a green alert for 6.[52]

Haiti

Haitian authorities urged people to evacuate to shelters, but to remember to wear masks and respect social distancing orders in the areas due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[53]

Jamaica and Cayman Islands

Although the center of Laura was forecast to remain north of Jamaica, associated rainbands on the southern side of the circulation were anticipated to bring significant precipitation. On August 23, the Jamaican Meteorological Service issued a flash flood watch for low-lying areas nationwide.[54] This was later upgraded to a flash flood warning on August 24 as torrential rains affected the nation.[55]

Originally, the bulk of the storm was forecasted to stay north of the Cayman Islands, but as the forecast kept on shifting further southwest of earlier forecast, the projections of significant precipitation and for Tropical Storm conditions continued to increase. The Cayman Islands Government issued Tropical Storm Warning for their Islands on August 23. This was in addition to the Severe Weather Statements and Flood Warnings that were already posted.[56]

Cuba

Ahead of Laura's first landfall in Cuba on August 23, tropical storm watches and warnings were issued throughout the nation. At one point, the western tip of Cuba was under both a tropical storm watch from Laura and a tropical storm warning from Hurricane Marco at the same time.[47] Officials evacuated 106,000 people in Santiago de Cuba Province, 81,300 in Holguín Province, and 12,000 in Guantánamo Province.[57][58] Power was preemptively cut across Guantánamo Province as a precautionary measure.[57] On August 24, a further 45,000 people in Villa Clara Province, 16,466 people in Matanzas Province, and 300 in Ciego de Ávila Province were evacuated. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic complicated evacuation efforts, resulting in typical evacuation shelters such as schools not being opened. Those suspected of being infected were relocated to quarantine centers. Residents nationwide were alerted to the potential of widespread flooding as many reservoirs were at or near capacity.[58]

United States

Hurricane Marco 2020 advisory 10.pngHurricane Laura 2020 advisory 12.png
Forecast tracks and accompanying hurricane and tropical storm watches and warnings 21:00 UTC on August 22 for Marco (left) and Laura (right). At the time, both cyclones were forecast to make landfall in Louisiana as hurricanes: Marco on August 24 and Laura on August 26.

Hurricanes Marco and Laura threatened a large swath of oil rigs positioned across the Gulf of Mexico. By August 23, approximately 58 percent of oil production and 45 percent of natural gas production was shut down; this included the evacuation of 114 platforms.[59] By August 25, 299 of 643 platforms and 27 of 28 mobile rigs were evacuated.[60] Seven tornado watches were issued for this storm. They included the Coastal Waters as well as Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Tennessee, Alabama, and Kentucky.[61][62][63][64][65][66][67] The staff at the NWS Lake Charles office also evacuated with warnings for their area being issued by NWS Brownsville. Three rare Extreme Wind Warnings were issued for Louisiana and Texas as Laura approached landfall.[68][69][70]

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico Governor Wanda Vázquez declared a state of emergency, and FEMA teams were ready to help with recovery efforts in Puerto Rico.[71]

Florida

On August 21, Florida Governor Ron DeSantis declared a state of emergency for southern counties in the state. A mobile hospital unit was pre-staged in Marion County and personal protection equipment kits were readied for distribution to shelters.[72] A tropical storm watch was issued for the Florida Keys as the storm approached, although the north side of the area was dropped when Laura went farther south than expected. The rest were eventually upgraded to warnings.[47] The mayor of Monroe County, Heather Carruthers declared a local state of emergency, and mandatory evacuations for mobile homes and boats, although visitors were allowed to stay.[73]

Texas

United States Coast Guard boats pre-staging at a NASA facility in Houston
Road sign in Texas on August 25

Hurricane, tropical storm, and storm surge watches were issued for areas mainly near and east of Galveston on August 24. Most were upgraded to warnings the next day and a flash flood watch was also issued for the eastern portion of the state.[47]

On August 23, Texas Governor Greg Abbott declared a state of emergency for 23 counties in eastern Texas.[74] On August 25, mandatory evacuation orders were issued for low-lying areas of Chambers, Galveston and Jefferson counties, and for the entirety of Orange County. This included the entirety of the Bolivar Peninsula and cities of Galveston and Port Arthur.[75] Galveston city officials advised residents that all city services would cease at noon on August 25 and upon the arrival of tropical storm-force winds, emergency services would be suspended.[76] A total of 50 busses were used to assist in evacuations.[77] A voluntary evacuation order was issued for coastal areas of Brazoria and Harris counties.[75][78] An estimated 385,000 people were under evacuation orders in the state, including the entire city of Beaumont.[79]

Louisiana

Soldiers and vehicles from the Louisiana Army National Guard reinforce a levee ahead of Hurricane Laura

Hurricane, tropical storm, and storm surge watches were issued for almost the entire coastline on August 24. This came just hours after the southeastern portion of the state had their tropical storm and storm surge warnings for Marco cancelled. Most of the watches were upgraded to warnings the next day and a flash flood watch was also issued for the western half of the state as over 10 inches (250 mm) of rain was expected.[47] As the threat of surge increased for the coastline, the NHC stated that there would be "unsurvivable storm surge with large and destructive waves."[80]

On August 21, Louisiana Governor John Bel Edwards declared a state of emergency for 36 parishes due to the concurrent threat of Hurricanes Marco and Laura.[81][82] Evacuations related to Marco were in place for Plaquemines Parish, Jefferson Parish, Grand Isle, and Port Fourchon.[82][83] A mandatory evacuation for the entirety of Calcasieu Parish, approximately 200,000 people, was ordered on August 25.[79][84] State-run shelters were opened with cots spread farther apart due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[79] Just hours before Laura made landfall on August 26, I-10 was shut down in both directions between the Louisiana/Texas border eastward to the Atchafalaya Basin.[85]

The storm continued its devastating course through Central Louisiana, especially the towns of Alexandria and Pineville and the parishes of Rapides, Avoyelles, and Grant. The damage in these areas, while not as devastating as the Louisiana Gulf Coast, is tremendous.

Mississippi

Despite being well away from the center of the storm, the coastline of Mississippi was placed under a storm surge watch from Ocean Springs westward on August 24 due to the massive size of Laura. However, these were dropped before the storm made landfall.[47] Mississippi Governor Tate Reeves declared a state of emergency on August 22 due to both Hurricanes Laura and Marco threatening the state, which the federal government granted on August 24.[86][87]

Arkansas

President Donald Trump declared a state of emergency for the state of Arkansas.[88]

Impact

Deaths and damage by territory
Country/Territory Fatalities Damage
(2020 USD)
Ref
Lesser Antilles 0 $200 million
Dominican Republic 4 [89]
Haiti 31 [90]
Cuba 0
Jamaica 0 [91]
Cayman Islands 0
United States Puerto Rico 0
Florida 1 $8.7 billion [92]
Louisiana 23 [93]
Mississippi 0
Texas 8 [94][95][96][97]
Arkansas 0
Totals: 67 $8.9 billion [1]

Lesser Antilles

As Laura passed through the Leeward Islands, the storm brought heavy rainfall to the islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica, which was captured on radar imagery from Guadeloupe.[98] In the Netherlands Antilles, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint-Maarten saw minor flooding. Scattered power outages affected 4,000 people in Saint Kitts and Nevis.[99] In the Virgin Islands, a peak wind gust of 41 mph (65 km/h) was reported in Sandy Point, Saint Croix. It caused some power outages and flash flooding across the Virgin Islands.[100]

Dominican Republic

Tropical Storm Laura over the Mona Passage, approaching the Dominican Republic and Haiti on August 22

Tropical Storm Laura brought damaging winds and flooding rains to much of the Dominican Republic. Precipitation was heaviest along the southern coast, with a peak 24-hour accumulation of 11.7 in (300 mm) in Barahona.[101] Approximately 1.1 million people lost power while 1.56 million people experienced disruption to water services.[102][103] Early assessments as of August 24 indicated significant damage to 1,791 homes, prompting the evacuation of 8,995 people.[103] In Santo Domingo, a woman and her son died after their house collapsed, due to the rain brought by Laura,[104] and in Pedro Brand, a man died when a tree fell on his house.[105] Severe flooding was reported across Santo Domingo.[106] A police officer lost his life after falling on a downed electric cable in the Elías Piña Province.[107]

Haiti

Similar to the Dominican Republic, heavy precipitation affected much of Haiti; a personal weather station in Port-au-Prince measured 6.61 in (168 mm) of rain.[101] Extensive flooding affected the nation,[108] forcing many families to evacuate their homes.[109] As of August 28, at least 31 people were confirmed dead with another 8 missing.[90] The Péligre Dam overflowed, sending floodwaters down the Artibonite valley. Public Works Minister Nader Joaseus alerted residents that the dam could collapse. Agriculture suffered significant damage as the nation struggled with COVID-19 related food shortages.[106] Flooding damaged 447 homes and destroyed 15 others across the Artibonite department.[110]

Cuba

Tropical Storm Laura over the Gulf of Batabanó, near its second Cuban landfall on August 24

After clearing Hispaniola, Tropical Storm Laura brought damaging winds and flooding rains to Southeastern Cuba on August 23–24. Wind gusts reached 91 mph (146 km/h) in Maisí,[57] tearing roofs off homes and downing trees. Rainfall reached 9.51 in (241.5 mm) in Complejo Palma, Santiago de Cuba, and 7.50 in (190.6 mm) in San Antonio del Sur, Guantánamo. Damage across Holguín Province was relatively limited; some structures and crops were damaged and scattered power outages occurred. A bridge in Buey Arriba, Granma Province, collapsed due to flooding, which isolated 30 communities. A station in Cabo Cruz recorded sustained winds of 50 mph (80 km/h) and a gust of 65 mph (104 km/h). Minor flooding and power outages occurred in Las Tunas Province.[58]

Jamaica and Cayman Islands

Flash flooding across Jamaica caused significant disruptions to road infrastructure. A weather station in Negril observed 4.97 in (126 mm) of rain.[101] A landslide blocked the main road to Gordon Town; unstable terrain hampered efforts to clear debris. A bridge in Saint Thomas Parish was washed away, isolating residents of Trinityville, Georgia, and Cedar Valley.[111] Additionally, the main road connecting Papine to Dallas Castle in Bull Bay collapsed.[112] Wind gusts reached 35 to 40 mph (56 to 64 km/h) along southern coastlines near Kingston, and in Montego Bay on the country's north coast.[101] Initial damage estimates totaled to around J$54 million (US$360,000) according to Jamaica's National Works Agency (NWA).[91]

Rounds of gusty winds and heavy rainfall affected the Cayman Islands as Laura passed just to the north.[113]

United States

Hurricane Laura produced at least 16 tornadoes in Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. The preliminary insured damages from Hurricane Laura in Texas and Louisiana were estimated at $8–12 billion.[114]

Puerto Rico

In Puerto Rico, Laura downed trees and caused flooding in Salinas.[115] Part of the Salinas city sign was also blown over during the storm.[116] A peak of 4.09 in (104 mm) of precipitation was reported in Villalba, with a peak wind gust of 75 mph (121 km/h) being reported in Salinas.[117] Roughly 200,000 customers lost power in Puerto Rico, with nearly 14,000 losing access to running water.[118]

Florida

Tropical storm-force wind gusts affected several counties across southern Florida, particularly Collier, Miami-Dade, and Monroe counties. A gust of 65 mph (105 km/h) was observed at the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station.[119] Farther south, a strong squall line moved through Key West, damaging streetlights and generating a 69 mph (111 km/h) wind gust at the National Weather Service's Key West office.[120][121] On August 25, a St. George Island first responder drowned while trying to rescue a swimmer caught in rough surf.[92]

Louisiana

Satellite loop of Laura from peak intensity and landfall in Louisiana to becoming a tropical depression over Arkansas.

Numerous tornado warnings began to be issued throughout Louisiana as Laura approached the coast on August 26.[122][123] One tornado was reported by the public in Paincourtville, Louisiana, although no damage occurred. Another tornado was spotted by a trained spotter in Bell City, Louisiana.[124] Coastal water rises began at around 19:00 UTC on August 26.[125]

Members of the Louisiana National Guard assessing storm damage in Lake Charles

The first report of sustained tropical-storm force winds on land was at Cypremort Point, on Vermilion Bay, where 45 mph (72 km/h) winds were recorded.[126] Intracoastal City saw a storm surge of 6 feet (1.8 m).[127] Storm surge also flooded over SH 317 at Burns Point in St. Mary Parish, and flash flooding surrounded homes in Abbeville.[128][129]

Widespread power outages were reported near the landfall point in Cameron. Near Cameron, a wind gust of 127 miles per hour (204 km/h) was recorded at Calcasieu Pass, which saw at least 9.19 feet (2.80 m) of storm surge.[130][131] Holly Beach was extensively damaged as an RV was destroyed and several homes suffered roof damage.[132] Storm surge flooding also covered SH 82.[133] The town of Hackberry was severely damaged by storm surge flooding and two trains were derailed in Grand Lake, where the Grand Lake High School suffered damage.[134][135][136] In Lake Charles, numerous trees were blown down and another RV was blown over.[137] The Lake Charles Regional Airport saw a wind gust of 128 miles per hour (206 km/h) as well as multiple hangars destroyed.[138][139][140] Another wind gust in the city reached 137 miles per hour (220 km/h).[141] Many windows were blown out of Capital One Tower in Downtown Lake Charles.[142] A communications tower collapsed onto the KPLC studio building (which had been evacuated ahead of the storm) and a portion of a skybridge was blown out.[143][144] The radar at the NWS Lake Charles forecast office (which had its staff evacuate in advance of the storm, and the office's operations being transferred in the interim to the NWS office in Brownsville, Texas) was destroyed around the time of landfall, with its dome and much of its internal equipment sheared from the radar tower's base.[145] Farrar Hall at McNeese State University also suffered damage, and a Motel 6 building partially collapsed.[146][147] A chlorine leak caused a large chemical fire on the west side of Lake Charles.[148]

Elsewhere, power flashes were seen in Sulphur, where a hotel was damaged.[149][150] Extensive structural damage also occurred in Vinton, and a salon was destroyed in Westlake.[151][152] Softwood trees were blown down on Fort Polk and the roof of a home collapsed in Alexandria after a tree fell on it.[153][154] The NWS radar at Fort Polk was also destroyed.[155] A home in Carlyss had its roof and entire back room ripped off while another home was damaged in New Llano after a carport was blown into it.[156][157] There was extensive damage to trees, power lines and poles, and structures in De Quincy and much of the town of Delcambre was left underwater due to flooding.[158][159] The roof of a Market Basket store in Welsh and Hicks High School in Lacamp was blown off.[160][161] A tree was blown down onto a fraternity house in Lafayette.[162]

Further inland, a mesonet near Calvin measured a wind gust of 70 miles per hour (110 km/h).[163] Trees and power lines were blown down all over the cities of Mansfield and Shreveport.[164] In the latter city, a tree fell on a house, injuring a person inside while another tree fell on a vehicle.[165][166] Multiple roads throughout Shreveport had to be closed due to the widespread tree damage.[167] In Monroe, trees and parking light poles were downed and metal roofing was blown off of multiple buildings.[168] Widespread flooding was reported in Natchitoches Parish, where I-49 had to be closed past SH 174 west of Powhatan due to a downed tree.[169][170] In Natchitoches, utility poles were snapped and broken and power lines were blown down on a business on SH 1.[171] The police station in Robeline had its roof ripped off to go with the numerous downing of large trees throughout the town.[172][173] Near Bossier City, a large tree was blown down on the Centenary College of Louisiana campus while several homes were damaged by falling trees south-southwest of the city.[174][175] In Greenwood, flash flooding led to high water over the shoulder roads of I-20 at exit 5 with drivers being advised to use US 80 as an alternative.[176] In Jena, multiple trees were blown down on homes and vehicles and power lines were downed all over town.[177]

Falling trees were responsible for four fatalities in the state. They included a 14-year-old girl in Vernon Parish, a 68-year-old man in Acadia Parish, a 51-year-old man in Jackson Parish, and a 64-year-old man in Allen Parish.[178] Carbon monoxide poisoning from generators being inside homes, which is strongly discouraged, led to the deaths of seven people in Calcasieu Parish and two people in Allen Parish.[93] Another man died of drowning while aboard a sinking boat during the storm.[179] Finally three people died in Calcasieu Parish and Rapides Parish during the cleanup process, and six others died in Beauregard Parish, Rapides Parish, and Vernon Parish due to heat-related illnesses following the loss of electricity.[93]

Texas

Before the hurricane made landfall, one person was killed and another injured after rough surf from Laura slammed them against jetties in Corpus Christi on August 26.[94] Another man died after he was electrocuted while preparing for the storm.[96] Eastern Texas saw a few tornado warnings as Laura neared landfall on August 26 as well.[122][123] Coastal water rises in the southeast part of the state began at around 20:00 UTC that same day.[180] Wind gusts in both Houston and Galveston peaked at 38 miles per hour (61 km/h).[181] A wind gust of 79 miles per hour (127 km/h) was recorded at Kirbyville Raws site near Call and trees were downed in Groves.[182][183] In Port Arthur, trees were downed, including one that fell on a house, and a parking lot lamp snapped at its base.[184][185][186] A large tree also fell on and damaged a house in Beaumont.[187] Structural damage occurred in near Pinehurst just west of Orange, where multiple trees and power lines where downed and several structures, including a church, were damaged.[188][189][190] Structural damage also occurred in Bridge City.[191] More trees and power lines were blown down across both Angelina and Sabine Counties, some of which blocked roads.[192][193][194] In Hemphill, a roof collapsed at an Ashley HomeStore and multiple roads were blocked by falling trees.[195][196] A man was killed northeast of the town when a tree fell on him while he was sitting on a recliner in his home.[95] Southeast of the city, trees fell on homes and blocked all exits in the McGee's Landing Area.[197] East of Center, a tree and power lines fell on FM 417 and FM 2694.[198] Following the storm, five people died in Southeast Texas in four separate incidents of carbon monoxide poisoning as a result of improperly-placed generators.[97]

Mississippi

Despite the reduced surge threat on the coast, Mississippi still faced the threat of tornadoes from the storm, especially on the western side of the state. A number of tornado warnings were issued for parts of the state starting on August 26 with an EF0 tornado confirmed in Oxford on August 27.[122][123][199][200] Widespread flash flooding occurred across Jefferson Davis County. In Natchez, trees were blown down and a sign at an Autozone damaged six vehicles when it was blown down.[201][202] A tree was also blown down on a house in Warrenton.[203]

Arkansas

Laura entered Arkansas while still at tropical storm strength. Numerous tornado warnings were issued in Arkansas with eight tornadoes confirmed in the state, the largest tornado outbreak ever recorded in the state during the month of August.[123][199][204][205] A high-end EF1 tornado caused significant damage to a church in Lake City, though no one was hurt or injured.[200][206] This same storm dropped another high-end EF1 tornado north of Brookland.[200] A rare PDS tornado warning was also issued for this tornado.[207] The storm then dropped its strongest tornado, which was rated low-end EF2, which damaged structures and homes southwest of Maynard.[208] Widespread flash flood warnings were issued throughout the state. A 57 miles per hour (92 km/h) wind gust was recorded just south of El Dorado, causing several trees and power lines to fall, two of which landed on houses. This caused many power outages in Union County.[209][210][211] Numerous trees were downed in the Doddridge area, including one on US 71, causing numerous power outages.[212] South of Bradley near the Louisiana/Arkansas state line, a tree fell on AR 29, blocking the road.[213] AR 343 was shut down between Lewisville and AR 53 due to falling trees.[214] Trees were downed on power lines in Dermott and a barn also had its roof removed in Wilmot.[215][216]

Trees and power lines were downed across a widespread area in several counties.[217][218][219][220][221][222][223] In the town of Camden, where numerous trees were blown down, including one that fell on a house, and a metal roof was blown off a shop building.[224][225] Downed trees were also reported in Sheridan and power poles were snapped along US 67 northeast of Caddo Valley.[226][227] Eastbound I-30 was shut down west of Hope at mile marker 26 due to a downed tree blocking both lanes of the freeway.[228] In Kingsland, several large trees were blown down, including one that significantly damaged a house.[229] In Goodrich, a house carport was destroyed with a hole through its wall.[230] Several roads east of Mena were closed due to flooding.[231] A portion of County Road 106 southwest of Ravenden was washed out due to flooding, and flash flooding in Sherwood left an intersection impassable.[232][233]

Elsewhere

Moderate to heavy rainfall impacted the eastern half of Oklahoma, prompting a flash flood warning in Le Flore County.[234] Outflow from the storm also generated a band of southwest-moving thunderstorms that extended from Oklahoma City southward to the Texas border.

In Tennessee, a flash flood warning was issued in Memphis and tornado and severe thunderstorm warnings were issued in the western part of the state late on August 27. The next day, more warnings issued, including one tornado warning for areas just north of Nashville, which had gotten hit by a high-end EF3 tornado just under six months earlier.[234][199] Two EF0 tornadoes were confirmed in the state.[235]

Multiple tornado warnings were also issued in Southern Missouri, Kentucky, Northern Alabama, and Eastern Maryland.[199][236] Four tornadoes were confirmed in Alabama with three being rated EF1 while the other was rated EF0.[237][238]

Aftermath

Haiti

Following the passage of Laura, Haiti's Directorate General of Civil Protection (DGCP) began damage assessments. The agency quickly distributed food kits to affected residents in the Ouest, Nippes, Sud-Est, and Sud departments. Water treatment products were sent to Anse-à-Pitres and Belle-Anse by the National Directorate for Drinking Water and Sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) and Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) deployed medical teams across the country to assist the Haitian National Red Cross Society, though transport of victims was hampered by limited access to ambulances. Eleven schools were converted to shelters; however, many evacuees opted to stay with neighbors or relatives due to fears of COVID-19.[239]

United States

U.S. President Donald Trump at a FEMA meeting on August 27

The governors of both Texas and Louisiana surveyed storm damage in the hardest hit parts of their respective states after the storm had passed. Roads in both Calcasieu and Cameron Parishes in Louisiana were impassable, cutting off road access to both Cameron and Creole. About 200,000 people were left without drinking water after Laura made 80 water systems inoperable. Additionally, some areas saw complete destruction in their power grids, and over a million people lost power. Some areas were expected to be without power for weeks or even months. Multiple homes also were uninhabitable due to air conditioning units being destroyed. Recovery efforts were hampered by additional rainfall in the days after Laura had passed.[240]

National Guard troops respond in the aftermath of Hurricane Laura in Lake Charles

Post-storm assessments indicated extensive damage and losses to Louisiana's timber industry with some small private forest landowners reporting complete loss of their timber acreage, an outcome which they had not experienced in the aftermath of Hurricane Rita, 15 years earlier.[241] Extensive damage was also reported to Louisiana's industrial facilities with one-third showing some type of damage and nine out of the 138 facilities showing critical damage, causing environmental concerns. Some of the most critically damaged facilities were the BioLab facility and the Equistar Chemicals facility in Westlake, and the Chemical Waste Management facility and the Lotte Chemical plant in Lake Charles.[242]

See also

References

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